By on August 30, 2016

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

I didn’t race this past weekend at Mid-Ohio, but it was still useful to me for a couple of reasons.

The first one was that I got to have an argument with the nice but very naive fellow who banned me from competing in the event. That was primarily amusing because his wife kept sticking her face in front of his and screaming at me. And this dude was totally cool with that. Preferred it, I think.

Intellectually, I realize that in $THE_CURRENT_YEAR there are a lot of full-grown “men,” probably raised in a fatherless environment, who need women to defend them from super-mean, scary old cripples like me. But it still makes me feel like Tommy Lee Jones in that movie where that one guy with the great hair kills people with a pneumatic cattle gun. I’m already irrelevant. Already a relic. The national conversation has moved on. It’s okay. I will adapt. In the future, if you have a problem with me, take it up with Danger Girl. She’s much younger and stronger than I am.

The other useful part of the NASA race was that I happened to be holding a camera when a young Miata driver looped his car. I caught the whole thing. Click the jump and I’ll show you how he spun — and how you can avoid a spin like this, both on the street and on the track.

I’m going to start by noting that this particular driver was easily one of the two or three fastest guys in HPDE 1, which is the entry level of NASA driver education. He had good, solid pace. Instructors like that kind of driver because you’re not always watching your mirrors on his behalf, and because it’s nice to see somebody “get it” under your tutelage.

But it’s common for undisciplined, inexperienced coaches to let their more talented drivers run wild, which is what happened here. Mid-Ohio’s Carousel has a downhill entry that reduces grip. The lap before, I’d noticed the Miata slide a bit before the driver caught it. That was a cue for the instructor to rein his student in a bit and explain to him something that you don’t really learn until you start doing trackdays: there is always less traction available to you when you are going downhill.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Since the instructor didn’t do his job, here’s his student, turning the wheel too much on the backside of a hill and experiencing an oversteer moment as a result. Note, however, that by the time I get my camera out of my pocket, the driver already has countersteer applied.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Let me see if I can focus this camera and catch up with the kid …

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Here we go. He’s slid all the way down the backside of this hill with major steering applied.

Now, steering is not free. What do I mean by that? Simple. Any time your front wheels are not straight, you are scrubbing off forward momentum and using it to steer the car. In this case, the driver is scrubbing forward momentum off and using it to keep the front end ahead of the back end. As long as he’s going down the hill, the momentum that he picks up from gravity is enough to make up for the momentum he’s losing to his front wheels. But as you can see, the track is about to flatten out.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Uh-oh. The Miata isn’t going downhill anymore, which means it’s slowing down. Two things are happening as a result.

The first thing is the back end isn’t going too fast to grip any more, so it’s snapped back into line. The second thing is that the cranked steering is now really slowing the car. So we’ve gone from having a car with a sliding rear end to a car with a planted rear end that is slowing rapidly.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

An experienced driver recognizes this is happening and unwinds his steering in a big hurry. But HPDE 1 is for novice drivers, so he doesn’t know to unwind. Even if he knows he has to unwind, he’s not doing it fast enough. Meanwhile, the car has slowed down enough that the front end is biting very well. What happens next is exactly what would happen if you hucked the wheel a full turn and a half while you were driving down the road at 40 mph.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

And now we’re going to loop hard. Note that our driver is a sharp kid and he is unwinding his wheel. He’s just too late. In fact, he’s going to continue to try to countersteer his way out of it for the whole spin, always a few ticks behind what the car is actually doing.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

And now he’s a passenger, as is his hapless coach.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

The car is now bleeding out its momentum in a classic 360.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

And this all seems pretty harmless, right?

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

Oops. Not quite as harmless as it seems.

Spinning Miata, Image: © 2016 Jack Baruth/The Truth About Cars

There’s about a 40 mph closing speed going on there — enough to total both cars.

I was really happy to capture this on camera as it happened because it’s such a classic example of how people loop their rear-wheel-drive cars on a track. Rarely do they spin off from the original slide. It’s usually the correction of the slide that causes the spin. They apply countersteer correctly, or nearly so, not realizing that the heavy countersteer is slowing the car to the point that the back end is going to grip in a big hurry, causing the car to snap the other way.

How could this have been prevented? Well, the instructor should have had command of the car and the situation. He’d been given plenty of warning on the previous lap. This spin was, strictly speaking, his fault. But it would really be a dick move on my part to assign a lot of blame to a guy who is basically doing volunteer instruction for a very small amount of compensation, just trying to help new drivers. Ross Bentley wouldn’t have let this happen, but the cost of a whole NASA weekend gets you about ten minutes of Mr. Bentley’s time. I wouldn’t have let it happen — I think I’ve been party to two spins in the course of coaching well over 250 drivers in the past decade — but my time isn’t all that cheap nowadays, either.

So let’s assume the slide was bound to happen because the instructor didn’t know to put the reins on his kid. If the driver had unwound the steering earlier, he’d have been fine. He could have done a catch-and-release, the way the handsome bastard in the below video does:

But a slower unwind would have also done the job. This didn’t happen instantaneously and everybody involved had plenty of notice.

Last but not least, if the driver had left a little throttle on throughout the slide, the recovery could have been more gradual and his slow hands might have been enough to catch it. But having the presence of mind to do maintenance throttle while you’re sliding out of control at close to freeway speeds … that’s something you learn, not something you’re born doing.

We could close here, but it would be massively dishonest of me to do so. Instead, I’ll tell you about how I once failed to solve a very similar problem to what this driver is facing.

In January of 2014, I was cresting a hill on a rural two-lane when my back end stepped out on glare ice. I caught it just fine. Did everything right. But when that ice stopped, I had too much steering cranked in. I’m much more experienced than my friend in the Miata here. My hands move much faster. I corrected the situation again and prevented the spin. But I wasn’t able to get my car straightened back out before another car target fixed on my passenger, crossed the double-yellow line, and hit us in the door.

Was it possible for me to do better in that situation? Absolutely. Was there a penalty for my failure to be the best driver I could be? There certainly was; it was measured in months of hospitalization, dozens of broken bones, and eleven surgeries for me and my passenger. Do I want the same thing to happen to you? Fuck no. So get out there and work on your car control. The life you save, as they say, could be your own.

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42 Comments on “Trackday Diaries: Taking Yourself For a Spin...”

  • avatar

    I think we can all agree that the Miata will remain dangerous and nearly unusable until it has AWD and a CVT.

  • avatar
    Nick 2012

    I always appreciate these articles, Jack. They are a great help to street drivers and novice racers.

  • avatar

    Great article, but we are all dying to know what awful, terrible thing you did to get banned from this prestigious event.

  • avatar

    Take away the second and third paragraphs and this is a great piece of instruction.

  • avatar

    The guy went out of his lane to hit you? Yeesh. In that case, I hope you weren’t assigned any fault. When can we expect to hear the full story?

    • 0 avatar
      Jack Baruth

      I was the one who was sitting sideways in the road. Calling it his fault would be a stretch.

      I just wish he’d stayed in his lane and ripped my bumper off.

      • 0 avatar

        Obviously I don’t know the details of the situation. But generally, the way I see it is that if you leave your lane, you are now at least partially responsible for anything that happens outside it, because there’s no way to prove that a collision would have occurred if you had just stayed where you’re supposed to be.

        • 0 avatar

          If I were to give the other driver the benefit of the doubt: I was taught in rallycross (and also in sailing) that if you’re in a collision course with someone, to aim for their ass as it’s unlikely they’re moving backwards.

          The other driver might have thought you were heading into their lane (him hitting your passenger door means your front was facing into his lane), and so was aiming toward where your rear would have been if you were still moving.

    • 0 avatar
      SCE to AUX

      The full story?

      You can start reading here:

      • 0 avatar

        I think I’ve read everything that Jack has written in the past few years. I seem to recall him mentioning that he’d write up the details once the books are closed on the incident.

  • avatar

    “It’s usually the correction of the slide that causes the spin.”

    This times 1000. Almost EVERY incident I’ve seen during my (rather limited) 3 years of HPDE driving (and some instructing) is any attempts at correction is where things go from bad to worse.

    As stated the original slide occurs due to too much steering input but not enough rear grip. Then the opposite violently occurs – not enough steering combined with immediate rear grip. This catches people out. They don’t expect the sudden grip but at this point your are aimed in the opposite direction as the apex blurs by in teacup-ride like dizziness. It feels like things are happening fast but in fact the car itself is going much slower. Plus the weight transfer is all out of wack thus rendering your muscle memory of steering inputs useless. My brother (who is a better driver then me) spun and the results were a bent fender on his Golf R. Basically the car began to dive HARD to the side once its forward momentum was gone due it being completely sideways. I’ve done a slide like that in my truck (V8 Quad Cab Dakota) and it nearly ripped by head off due the weight coming around. They call it “snap” oversteer for a reason. It happens so fast its over before you can even process things. The idea that you will do the right thing is laughable.

    Often the best course of action is to do as little as possible. IE: let the wheel go lose in your hand, lift off (assuming RWD, not mid or rear engine), then let the car scrub speed naturally and be ready to catch it when pointed straight once grip returns. Do not attempt a fix midstream. Thankfully I’ve never had this happen at high speeds but the whole process happens so fast that normal people (IE: non-race car drivers) can’t recover. I tell people all the time: do NOT try to save the car! We repeat it in the driver’s meeting yet about once per event someone tries it and they usually go home on the wrecker due to finding a tire wall (FYI: those things are NOT soft). The scary part is shown in the picture – in the following car finds itself already on the limits in the brake zone with another car sideways blocking the racing line. I care not for this situation.

    I must say traction control or some kind of nanny like stabilization control pretty much makes such a situation impossible on the street (or even the track) unless its slick (rain, ice, etc). Now that I understand my 350Z’s tenancies I’ve learned it is pretty much spin-proof provided I leave the VDC (vehicle dynamic control) on. Sure the nanny steps in too quickly and basically kills the throttle, but its all auto-magic and amazingly good keeping you totally safe. It simply will not let the car get that out of shape. Almost every accident on the street with a RWD car starts with “well I turned the traction control off” statement from the driver. Let’s face it, unless your name is Rahal or Vettel the computer is far superior. The system is lighting fast at managing changing grip and slip angles… so just leave the darn thing ON people!

    • 0 avatar

      Bro code demands you ride with all the nannies off! Or you can’t drive bro!

      Yeah… I don’t get it myself but I’m under no illusion that having about 10 times the power my tires can handle somehow makes me a better driver either!

      My best experience with that came with a visit to Michelin’s Laurens Proving Grounds and out on this neat donut of a track that they use to demonstrate how the placement of tires can effect the handling of the car.

      The instructor liked to point out to a muddy field and let you know he wasn’t going to ruin his shoes and pants extracting the car for a mud pit.

      His instructions were simple since driving the car past the limit of adhesion was part of the program.

      Let off the throttle and let the car slow down until it finds itself then straighten it out and carry was the jist of it.

      He said don’t try to steer out of the skid or spin and fit the car just let the stability, traction and braking systems do their job.

      He also pointed out as an average driver your not likely to be aware of where the wheels are pointed and what the car is going to do when it finds traction and that in most cases as the article told instead of planning ahead your most likely going to react after the fact exacerbating the situation.

      Always thought it was pretty good advice and its saved me a few times. The last time I had to deal with a spin at a fairly good rate of speed I had forgotten that I had drag radials on the back of the car and when I hit the off ramp doing around 50-60 mph after it had rained a bit (road was mostly dry due to traffic but there was still some damp spots which is all the excuse a tire dedicated to as much forward traction as possible needs to make things interesting) I touched some freshly laid down stripes on the passenger side of the road and away I went doing a triple pirouette. I let off the gas and let the car do its job and slowed down to where I could competently control the car and away I went.

      The two most immediate threats were the outside wall separating the off-ramp from the on-rap which being reinforced concrete was pretty formidable and on the other side of the road is a boom used to close the ramp during emergency evacuations (on a side note, completely useless in the Tidewater area since the natural inclination for drivers there is to try and come to a complete stop with the least provocation for absolutely as long as possible come hell, high water, or genocidal alien invaders!).

      Neither proved to be a problem since I didn’t try to fight the car and shot off in any one direction.

  • avatar

    There’s a curious parallel in light plane aviation. Unintentional spins (not the car kind, the kind where one wing is stalled and the other is still lifting) have been a killer pretty much since WWI. The Feds required demonstration of spin recovery from the beginning of licensing in the 1930’s thru the 1960’s. The technique is not hard, but does require doing the opposite of what instinct feels comfortable with. The accidental spin fatalities continued, plus spin-related fatalities during training added to the toll. So, the FAA eliminated the requirement, replacing it with “avoidance” training. (Which worked about as well as “abstinence” sex-ed.)

    About 20 years ago, however, a top aerobatic pilot developed and extensively tested a new technique for spin recovery: (1) Close the throttle (2) Release the controls. What he discovered was that with any semi-modern airplane the plane will *fly itself* out of trouble. As this technique works its way through the community, spin accidents are becoming less frequent.

    Similar to the “release and catch” mentioned in the article.

    • 0 avatar
      Jack Baruth

      Ah, that’s an outstanding analogy, because “semi-modern” is also important here. A semi-modern car will return steering to center; not all older cars, with their wacky offsets and/or geometry, will.

      Thank you!

    • 0 avatar

      I’ve never heard of this technique. I’ll ask my flight instructor (even as a licensed pilot, I still talk to my FI on a regular basis).

      It seems to make sense, but…

      As it was developed by an acrobatic pilot, I wonder if the effectiveness is related to the almost ridiculous power-to-weight ration of modern acro aircraft.

      • 0 avatar

        Bunkie, it will work on a C-150 or a P210, same same. Doesn’t have to be a Pitts or an Extra.

        With twins, you have even more options.

        I learned that technique in about 1988 so it’s been more than 20 years.

    • 0 avatar

      Hmm, reduce throttle and back pressure, neutralize ailerons, opposite rudder is how I learned it. Reducing throttle and back pressure almost always do it alone, unless you’ve let yourself get into a deep spin. Stops the wing from stalling. Now you can lift the nose to reduce airspeed, and start applying power slowly. Don’t want to induce another stall, unless you’re just out having fun.

      Ex wife stalled us in a 177 Cardinal once at about 1500 AGL. I took the controls and had us back straight and level within a few hundred feet. It becomes second nature.

      As for cars, once I was towing a 1959 Peugeot 403 behind my 1980 Dodge 1/2 ton, and on a curve, at night, some black ice showed up underneath us (another divorce story, don’t ask). The Peugeot wanted to go one direction; the pickup another. The car was pulling the Dodge’s ass around too fast for the corner. Hmmm. We were in slow motion, and I could see that the end of the ice was coming. I knew (rationally or instinctively) we’d regain traction instantly at that time, and applied steering accordingly. Just went on driving and had no more incidents that night. Wasn’t even scary, really, once I saw dry pavement again. It’s just physics.

      But it’s exactly the same thing that happened to that Mazda, except all on dry pavement. And sometimes our steering gear just isn’t as quick as we wished it could be.

      It’s the things that scare the hell out of you that tend to be the best, and hopefully cheapest, lessons.

  • avatar
    thats one fast cat


    Absolutely fantastic article. I am in the process of teaching my oldest how to drive (car control clinics first!) and am getting her to understand the PHYSICS of the why and how of car control. Your explanation of why it worked the way it did is exactly what I have been looking for.

    Someday when I get back to doing track work – as opposed to just work – I hope I end up with some that can explain it with your ability to do so.

    • 0 avatar

      It’s one thing to understand it, but another entirely to be competent at it. At higher speeds on grippy pavement, the muscle memory has to kick in and move your hands well before you have any chance to think about what is happening.

      Playing around on low traction surfaces teaches the basics as well as anything, and provided plenty of experience for me to handle driving fast cars on a track as long as I did all my braking in a straight line and carefully squeezed the throttle on corner exit. But I’d recommend using a simulator to really refine the techniques. It was a real eye-opener with respect to how quickly you need to move your hands to stay ahead of the situation in high-grip, high-speed situations, and how long it takes to get good at that. I can’t even do it competently with the driving position that most people use on the street. The shoulders are not quick enough to move the weight of the upper arms like that. No wonder serious racers have the steering wheel right in front of their chest. I sit as close to the steering wheel as my pedal position will allow, and one of the things I love about Mazdas is that they provide a steering wheel position that allows for that.

      I was a fearless and aggressive teenager with a completely mechanical 4WD vehicle in high school, and I’ve always had a lot of fun with winter driving. But after spending a few thousand hours on the simulator over the past few years, I’ve really amazed myself with how quickly, calmly, precisely, and effortlessly the corrections now happen on the street. No more death grip on the wheel. My hands stay relaxed the entire time, just like those of my Bondurant instructors. I know they’ll do the right thing. A “moment” used to be a rush. Now it’s just something that happens in the background while I focus on the apex/exit.

  • avatar

    Went to SCCA driver school at M-O in 1973. What a beautiful place to race.
    I’d been to TransAm and CanAm races there since the late 60s and I was star struck driving around where my heroes had run.

  • avatar

    Meh, Magnussen did it same but faster on Sunday!

    • 0 avatar

      I was thinking the same thing as I read the story.

      Wonder if its a bit different in F1. Once they start going sideways, I imagine they start to lose a ton of aero grip. Maybe he can correct all he wants, but without the grip he’s already gone. Then again, grip is part of what causes the secondary spin. That’s beyond me.

  • avatar

    The corollary of this is that you usually need to unwind the countersteer before you think you do. Countersteer feels safe, and you want to keep it there as long as the car is sliding, but if you really listen, there’s a little voice in your head going, “NOW! NOW! NOW!” and if you listen to that sucker, you’ll unwind at the right time and keep going just fine. Listening to that voice in my Miata turned a lurid 70mph slide in the exit of Watkins Glen’s loop into a non-event rather than a BMW-on-Miata gangbang at this spring’s Chump race.

    It’s not something you think about; you just listen, and pretty soon your arms are unwinding, the car is straight, and your brain goes, “Man, that was a good one – now, don’t get all flustered and miss your braking point going into the boot!”.

    That second bit – the one where your brain tells your dumb ass to calm the F down and just worry about hitting your marks for the next few corners – is also really important in competition. Mistakes chain together, and resetting yourself so you don’t freak out during a near miss isn’t necessarily easy to do.

    • 0 avatar

      Yes, Peri, exactly.

      A wise flight instructor once told me, it’s not the first mistake that kills you, it’s the one you make after that.

      So yeah, save it, and keep driving. The car knows no fear, so it’s not going to think omigod, another corner! :)

  • avatar

    This scenario is why I no longer own a white 240SX, which met its end doing pretty much exactly this on a highway on-ramp at the hands of me in full HPDE-1-graduate “I got this” mode.

  • avatar

    Does ‘When it spins, both feet in’ apply? For the life of me I can’t remember the first half of that saying.

    Hard to tell, but that car looks ‘stanced’. Related to the spin?

    As far as the other thing, ‘Who bi$ch this is?’

    • 0 avatar

      “When it spins, both feet in” applies when the car is too far gone to have any realistic hope of catching it. At that point, you’re locking up the wheels in an effort to make the spin as predictable as possible, both to make it easier for traffic to avoid you, and to avoid ricocheting off in a direction that crashes you into something hard.

      Regarding the Miata being “stanced:” they actually like a bit of camber – up to nearly 3 degrees – for grip on the track. It’s also, to some extent, a byproduct of lowering the suspension, which this one also is. My own Miata, which is the same year as this one, is lowered about an inch and is set up with modestly more camber than Mazda calls for (but less than what this one has). When pushed on the track, I still wear the outside edges of my front tires, implying that I’d do well to add more camber, both for grip and even tire wear.

      Miatas are sensitive to alignment, and their double wishbone suspension allows for a reasonably wide range of adjustment front and rear. Between that and the selection of aftermarket suspension parts, they can be made to handle pretty differently. My car, on a matched set of modest reputable springs, shocks, and sways, oversteered excessively until I put the sway bars in their most conservative mounting holes. Even now, understeer is very difficult to achieve, and oversteer is easily attainable. Even stock, they’re quite neutral. They’re by no means an 80s Porsche 911, but compared to pedestrian cars, they require a bit of respect near the limit; you can’t just crank the steering and wait for understeer to scrub off any excess speed.

  • avatar

    nice, useful article. Thanks Jack.

  • avatar

    “Intellectually, I realize that in $THE_CURRENT_YEAR there are a lot of full-grown “men,” probably raised in a fatherless environment, who need women to defend them from super-mean, scary old cripples like me.”

    This ruined an otherwise fantastic article. A shame.

  • avatar

    I spun a miata in a similar situation and it caught me out so completely I had get all forensic and walk the track and the skid marks numerous times and gather the evidence about what happened. I had crested a rise with a slight right hand turn and when I could have kept my foot on the gas, instinctively eased off. The back end was already light and the weight transfer spun the car so fast I was looking out the side window while moving forward before I could even react. one half-hearted, half-assed twist on the wheel, then clutch in, thumbs out of the spokes, pound the brakes, ride it out. Lift throttle oversteer is a silent killer waiting for the unwary.

    • 0 avatar

      It’s happened to me on the track more than once in my Miata, too. For the friendly little buggers that they are, they’re fairly tail-happy, and I find that mine is the most settled when I get on the gas as early as possible.

    • 0 avatar

      Drove a single-speed go-kart at one of those kart/batting cages/putt-putt places a week ago; hadn’t been in ages!

      Those types of karts seem like excellent ways to learn at least some rudimentary control regimes. They seemed set up to push, but damned if the trailing-throttle oversteer didn’t nail at least one person! (I can only picture that same perspective as I had coming around a decreasing-radius turn, only to see a Miata in front of your WRX, instead of a hapless kid who just 180-ed into the tires!)

      Don’t lift completely, but use the throttle to correct your line! Good stuff!

  • avatar

    My most harrowing spin was on a sweeper of a turn in the snow going about 35 mph. Tinivan has toe out in the rear, and I’ve discovered a tendency to swing the back end out sometimes with little (not zero, but little) warning in a sustained turn on a low mu surface. This spin was the first time it reared that ugly head.

    As the left hand was transitioning to the right, the back end slid out, I corrected and it swung the other way and began heading to the inside of the turn and a conveniently placed street sign. Every ounce of emotion in my body screamed for full opposite lock, but what rationality I was maintaining told me that I would just snap back the other way again if/when I achieved grip, so I kept about 120 degrees of wheel in, foot off the throttle and brake, and just waited. At the last minute the fronts gripped again and I avoided the sign by inches, with no nasty snap of the tail back the other way.

    I was equal parts proud of the recovery and embarrassed by the initial slide. But it worked out nicely.

  • avatar

    I appreciate this article for two major reasons. First, it’s great to have this issue illustrated. Even though most people don’t drive RWD cars and they certainly don’t turn off traction control, understanding what can happen during situations where there just isn’t much traction (snow, rain) is extremely useful. My guilty pleasure is watching russian dashcam crash videos and they almost always follow the same pattern. Someone cuts right to dodge something/someone, they overcook it, end up crossing the centerline often into oncoming traffic. Sometimes they overcorrect into a ditch, but the pattern is the same. It’s also interesting to see it in ‘ring videos where you see the same accident over and over from a specific corner (I’m not cool enough to know corner names).
    The second and most important reason is the reference to No Country For Old Men. It’s a cinematic gem and if I weren’t at work right now, I’d be watching it. The gas station scene is just so good.

  • avatar

    Proud to say I was one of those spins with Jack (2012 Shenandoah, blue S2000).

    Great piece though, it really points out how much a driver needs to pay attention to weight transfer. It’s great when it’s working with you, like braking uphill, but when it works against you it can really bite you in the ass.

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