By on August 9, 2012

Over the recent years, Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR)  has come into increased use.  What has the American Civil Liberties Union up in arms is that the data are stored and can be used to compile behavioral profiles on innocent civilians. The state of Maryland seems to be in the lead when it comes to centralized aggregation and storage of ALPR data, “which raises significant privacy concerns,” says the ACLU.

Says an article on the ACLU website:

“If license plate scans, which are typically stamped with a location, time, and date, were used just for these purposes and deleted shortly thereafter, privacy concerns would be minimal to non-existent. After all, police can run license plates against these databases themselves. ALPR technology simply cuts down on the time and manpower required to perform these functions on a large scale. 

The privacy issues arise with the retention of the information. A police officer will not forever remember the exact location and time of an innocent motorist’s travels. With ALPR technology, those details can be stored indefinitely, creating an ever-growing historical record of the daily comings and goings of every Marylander. As ALPRs become more ubiquitous and that record becomes longer and more detailed, it will become possible for the government to determine a person’s exact movements during any given time period.” 

American Civil Liberties Union affiliates in 38 states sent requests to local police departments and state agencies that demand information on how they use automatic license plate readers (ALPR) to track and record Americans’ movements. The ACLU and the ACLU of Massachusetts filed federal Freedom of Information Act requests with the Departments of Justice, Homeland Security, and Transportation to learn how the federal government funds ALPR expansion nationwide and uses the technology itself.

In the meantime, take the bus. Hat tip to an anonymous tipster.


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56 Comments on “Big Brother Is Watching, Recording, And Storing You. ACLU Alarmed...”

  • avatar

    “In the meantime, take the bus”

    Too bad about the cameras on the bus…

    • 0 avatar

      And facial recognition software. The bottom line is, it’s 2012. If you’re in public, consider yourself on camera.

    • 0 avatar

      If America’s government ever turned tyrannical, even the most well armed backwoods militiamen would be DOOMED.

      They are about to have predator drones flying overhead for God’s sakes.

      This makes me wonder why we don’t have national ID cards yet. The Republicans scream about “voter registration fraud”, yet they won’t support having national ID when the government already has a national ID number: your social security number+ your birthdate.

      If it was up to me, we’d all have a state ID which we’d only have to update with a new picture every 5 -10 years (like our passport) and this way, I could ship illegal immigrants out ON CONTACT.

      • 0 avatar

        ” If America’s government ever turned tyrannical, even the most well armed backwoods militiamen would be DOOMED.

        They are about to have predator drones flying overhead for God’s sakes. ”

        Just like in Iraq?

      • 0 avatar

        “The Republicans scream about “voter registration fraud”, yet they won’t support having national ID”

        Because even they know that voter registration fraud is a non-issue and it’s just red meat for their base.

        Are there people who actually believe that illegal immigrants – who paid thousands of dollars and risked certain death crossing a desert with border patrol, drug gangs, and crazy minutemen – would risk all this by outing themselves just to cast a vote?

      • 0 avatar


        It’s not just about illegals. There are cases where people have voted multiple times using names of dead people. There are other situations as well, so it’s not all about illegal aliens.

        It’s not red meat – it’s a real issue.

      • 0 avatar

        Voter fraud has reached crisis proportions in the imaginations of partisan Republicans.

        Of course, voter fraud is a non-issue in the real world:

      • 0 avatar

        Why do you believe that an ID card is what’s needed to deal with illegal immigration?

        It hasn’t worked in any other country. Spain, Italy, South Africa, several Latin American countries (Costa Rica, Chile, Argentina)–all have national ID cards and all have problems with illegal migration.

        The most severe case is China–China has a (series of) national ID cards and internal residence permits, but perhaps as much as 10% of the Chinese population live/work illegally where they aren’t supposed to be.

      • 0 avatar


        Every now and then someone says something they think they know because they “heard it somewhere”. I work in Shanghai, China. The “illegals” you are talking about are Muslim Chinese from the Tibet autonomous region and in some cases escaped North Koreans. China doesn’t bother the NK’s, but the Han, Chinese population is absolutely RACIST towards the “Xin Zhang Ren” (Xin Zhang people).

        It’s not the same thing.

        If America had national ID’s, when police question suspects, they’d have no id and no way to have a fake national id, so they’d be deported. Arizona is already doing it.

      • 0 avatar

        @bigtruck: Actually, I think when people talk about “illegals” in China, they’re talking about the migrant workers who shun the hukou registration system – which do include the Uyghurs from Xinjiang, but most of them are Han from the inland provinces going to the prosperous coastal provinces for work without permission.

        In terms of facial features and skin color, it’s much much easier for a North Korean to blend in than the very Central Asian-looking Uyghurs – hence the overt racism towards them.

        “and no way to have a fake national id” – why not? If there’s a keyhole, there’s a way to make a key.

        @TexasAg: “There are cases where people have voted multiple times using names of dead people”. While that is true, it’s statistical noise. The serious legal consequences for getting caught are worth a few extra votes? I was swept up one year by the county elections fraud investigation because my signature on the ballot was done hastily and that slight anomaly was caught by the computer, and I was warned about state and federal jail time and fines for the fraud they “thought” I had done.

      • 0 avatar

        @bigtruck I was indeed referring to people who were misusing the Huoko registration system as onyxtape indicated.

        I happen to study the identification card industry and I’m also Latin American, which is where I get my knowledge on how ID cards work in the Latin American context.

        It truly is not a problem of documentation (no matter what the ID makers claim, for them, the problems caused by ID cards can be solved only with more ID cards.)

        No country has successfully battled an illegal immigration problem, in the same way that no country has successfully battled a war on drugs: the government’s ability to control the laws of supply and demand are limited, even in totalitarian societies.

        I can get weed more or less wherever I want to in the US because there’s demand for it, and there are 8 million illegals in the US because there is demand for their labor, period. No cheap piece of plastic will prevent that.

      • 0 avatar


        – Point taken

  • avatar

    If you are afraid of being “tracked”, then you should probably stop using:
    1. the internet
    2. credit and debit cards
    3. GPS
    4. cell phones
    5. …

    • 0 avatar

      Faulty argument:

      1. I can use a proxy or TOR
      2. I can use cash
      3. I can turn off (or for the super paranoid remove the battery of) my GPS device (or use a car without GPS built in)
      4. See number 3.

      There’s a difference between being able to opt out and not even having that option. You could argue that you can opt out of using a car, but that’s not viable for most people because the alternative transportation infrastructure doesn’t exist, and because the very layout and design of our communities are centered on cars.

      • 0 avatar


        #1 If you really think the government can’t track you through a proxy, you have never worked in IT before.

        #2 You can use cash- IN FRONT OF A REGISTER WITH A CAMERA.

        #3 GPS devices don’t necessarily broadcast their location. They triangulate position using satellites in a receive-only mode. Only newer GPS devices with internet connectivity broadcast location so they can reciever location-based updates. A Cellphone is a bigger “tracking device” that the government could use to locate you.

        Thing is, the new cameras the government has – as well as the PHONES can take one look at your image or hear your voice and figure out exactly who you are and where you are. My “Shazam app” can hear 3 seconds of any song and tell me the name of the song. My iMac can show me a bunch of pictures based on me tagging one picture of a friend using their face recognition. This technology has been in existence since the 70’s!

        I can’t imagine how much stuff the government’s got on me so if/when I mess up, they can just show the entire world (or judge) what I’ve been up to. Thing is…I just stopped caring. Even if I went to jail for all the illegal street racing, as far as I’m concerned, my taxes paid for it and I should get to sit back and enjoy it.

      • 0 avatar

        BigTruck, you definitely seem to know more than I do about some of these features, but I think the part that truly worries people (and the ACLU) is the aggregation of all this data into a historical record. If the police need to track someone, that’s one thing, but if everyone is being tracked by default, that’s another.

        I suggest below that we need to come up with some ground rules about privacy and data retention, and the points you raise provide further evidence that we truly need to evaluate the implications of these systems.

      • 0 avatar

        Methinks that when children are born, some of our blood – possibly from our umbilical cord, is analyzed and catalogued. If we ever commit a crime, our DNA is on file and all they’ve gotta do is match it up.

        “Privacy” is not mentioned in the US Constitution and I’m sure that with things like the “Patriot Act” out there, we have no right to privacy at all. If the government hints at “national security threats” you can be severely violated.

        To quote the film Manhattan Project:

        They can lock you in a room and throw away the room.

      • 0 avatar

        I wish Shazam worked that well for me. It works about half the time. There’s just too much music to catalog.

      • 0 avatar

        @bigtruckseriesreview: The constitution is not a list of rights granted, it’s a list of restrictions on government. As JFK said in his inaugural address, the American Idea is “…the belief that the rights of Man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God”. According to the ninth amendment, the enumeration of rights is not a grant of rights but a list, and only a partial list, there are others that we “retain”, that is, we already have them. I personally consider privacy to be among them.

        The toughest job in America is getting the government to operate within the limits of its own founding document. I’m happy to see the ACLU actually tackling it.

      • 0 avatar

        I’d be less concerned about the government and more concerned about business targeting you…Progressive Snapshot is just the beginning. Soon you will be required to opt in or you will end up as assigned risk. Of course it will not be labelled that way but the end result will be if you don’t play by their rules you will pay more. Black boxes are evil as well…..

  • avatar

    Seems to me that the database information would be so broad as to be unusable in an investigative context. There would have to be something more concrete to draw attention to a specific vehicle (or, rather, a specific owner) that would then give the investigators a reason to check historical data.

    Let’s examine a hypothetical: A police department installs these plate readers on all of their cars and set up a system to catch the plate data of every car that the patrol vehicle passes and then stores it in a database with the date, time, and GPS coordinates of the car.

    The first problem is that police departments aren’t going to do that because these things are expensive. They’re not going to be standard issue. My department has one of these things out of 500+ police vehicles.

    The next problem is that, by design, the patrol cars are going to capture random information at random times. The patrol car can’t cover the entire area at once and it won’t be in the same location every day at exactly the same time in order to capture vehicle information and establish the patterns that the ACLU is worried about. Sure, over the course of a year, they might capture your plate three times at different locations. So what? Even if they catch it at the same spot three seperate times, if all of those times are months apart and at different times, it won’t prove anything.

    If the plate reader captures the information of a car sitting in traffic and stores it’s time, date, and location, what value is that? The car is going to move on, as is the police car, and what difference could it possibly make that the car was at the intersection of Main and Broadway at 2200 hours on 08/09/2012? By 2201 it was a block away, traveling in the opposite direction of the police car.

    If the plate reader catches and notes the location of a parked car, again, that’s not particularly valuable information in and of itself. Other information would be necessary to make that information valuable to an investigation.

    Let’s say a man is accused of murdering his wife with a gun, which he disposed of and the police haven’t recovered. The plate reader database tells them that three days before the murder his car was parked in front of Al’s Guns and Ammo. That information, in and of itself, is helpful to the investigation, but it isn’t enough to establish probable cause, much less proof of the man’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

    Finally, let’s consider storage of this information. All those digital ones and zeros have to be stored somewhere. If you were theoretically able to create a system that could capture the plate information of every vehicle that your fleet of patrol cars rolled past 24/7, you wouldn’t be able to keep all of it forever. You’d go broke buying hard drives to store it on.

    It seems to me that the ACLU is worried about something that in the real world has very limited practical effect. What they are useful for is quickly scanning and identifying plates that have been “flagged” in the DMV system, usually as stolen cars.

    • 0 avatar

      No, you’re wrong here. On a bunch of counts. That’s what Big Data is all about.

      With enough computer power, you can parse, dice and slice huge amounts of data into separate (but linked) categories/subdivisions. once the separations and links have been made, it’s much easier to process that data and find associations in voluminous information that was never before apparent.

      Police agencies don’t have to own the systems that process that data; there’s a whole industry dedicated to doing that for governments on a subcontract basis. They call it the “Homeland Security” industry. Think of it as that Military-Industrial Complex that President Eisenhower warned us about some 50-odd years ago, but with a new-age “Think Globally, Act Locally” mindset.

      This ain’t tinfoil hat stuff. If you’re in Las Vegas today, stop by the Convention Center and check out all the law enforcement officials picking up attendee badges and exhibit bags to gather all the information they can find at the industry’s Drone Trade Show. Then tell us how unusable all that surreptitious data our government is collecting on us will be, because nobody wants to do anything with it …

      • 0 avatar

        Agree with jrhmobile. That is exactly what big data is about. I work in the analytics industry and you’ll be surprised how easily I can personally profile individuals based on random data collected over long sample intervals.

        And people worrying about Target knowing when a pregnancy happened. Well, one of my coworkers was directly involved in the development of the algorithm that figured that information out. If you didn’t notice, that is what all Marketing companies want. Better profiling of customer data for better targeted marketing leading to higher profits.

        That is what Business Intelligence is about and ALL big companies use it. How aggressively they target their customers is a different question. And the government will come knocking on the doors of the same consultants who built the algorithms for Target. And the results will be equally impressive (from an engineering perspective). How good/bad it will be for the people is anybody’s guess.

      • 0 avatar

        Dead on JR. And you didn’t even touch on the uses to which a corrupt government-for-sale (which seems to be pretty standard anymore at the USA local and state level) can put this info at the business level in return for campaign cash. To quote ol’ Blago, ‘it’s a f***ing valuable thing’!

    • 0 avatar

      “It seems to me that the ACLU is worried about something that in the real world has very limited practical effect.”

      The commoditization of digital technology renders your argument moot.

      Random bits of data, when viewed in a vacuum and without context, provide only hit-and-miss results. But run significant amounts of random data through an algorithm, and you end up with a very different situation.

      In the past, mass surveillance has always been too cumbersome or costly to implement. Police states had to rely upon a combination of intimidation and snitches in order to be effective.

      Technology is changing all of that very quickly. As cameras, storage space and processing power get cheaper, it becomes easier to implement these programs and to make them work.

      And it’s constitutional, as we have few rights to personal privacy when we’re out in public. If this sort of thing is going to be controlled, then the controls will have to come from Congress.

      • 0 avatar

        You’re all comparing apples and oranges. There’s a world of difference between data mining in order to tailor marketing schemes to a consumer’s tastes and using this information in a manner that runs afoul of the 4th Amendment by itself.

        Let me give you some parameters and you guys explain to me how the information gathered from a plate reader and catalogued in a database with date, time, and location stamped on it alone could really hurt you.

        You drive a black Camaro with a personalized plate of “1FSTSS.” Over the course of a year, police cruiser with a plate reader records your plate at the following locations:

        1. Jan. 15 @ 0830 hours in front of a McDonald’s.

        2. Feb. 23 @ 0341 hours in the driveway of your home

        3. April 16 @ 1523 hours in the parking lot of the place where you work

        4. April 17 @ 1024 hours in the parking lot of the place where you work. (Officer came back the following day to complete a follow- up investigation on a matter unrelated to you.)

        5. May 23 @ 2224 hours in the driveway of your home

        6. June 1 @ 1145 hours in front of McDonald’s again

        7. June 29 @ 0130 hours in front of an apartment building across town from your home

        8. July 5 @ 1500 hours in the parking lot of a shopping center that contains a Hallmark store, an Autozone, a H&R Block, a Victoria’s Secret, a karate dojo, and a gun store.

        9. August 7 @ 0830 in front of McDonald’s again

        10. August 7 @ 1155 in front of Subway

        11. August 7 @ 1955 in front of a Cinemark

        12. August 17 @ 0330 in the driveway of your home

        13. August 28 @ 2150 in front of an abandoned warehouse

        14. August 31 @ 0830 in front of McDonald’s

        15. Sept. 9 @ 1357 in front of a bank

        16. Sept. 23 @ 0459 in the driveway of your home

        17. Oct. 13 @ 1930 hours in the parking lot of an Outback steakhouse

        18. Nov. 7 @ 0823 in front of McDonald’s

        19. Nov. 22 @ 1500 in front of your mother’s house across town

        20. Dec. 18 @ 1407 in the parking lot of a Mall

        21. Dec. 26 @ 0256 in the driveway of your home

        22. Dec. 31 @ 2345 in front of a local tavern

        Because of the random nature of patrols generally, that’s the kind of information that would be collected in the course of a year. They’re not going to catch your plate every day. In reality they probably wouldn’t catch your plate every month.

        So, what could the police do with this information? Sure, they could sell it to a marketing firm and you’d get more McDonald’s coupons in the mail. Leave that aside. What can they do from a criminal justice point of view with this information alone?

        Yes, if they had a specific situation to investigate, some information gleaned from the database might be useful. If the abandoned warehouse in #13 above burned down a few minutes after midnight, then the fact that your car was near it earlier might be relevant. But it’s only relevant because there is something else to make it relevant. The fact alone that the car was there means nothing.

        A fixed CCTV system like they have in London would be more intrusive and perhaps slide the balance too far in favor of the police. A random collection of data like what is described might provide a clue now and then, but it’s not going to destroy the 4th Amendment.

      • 0 avatar

        “There’s a world of difference between data mining in order to tailor marketing schemes to a consumer’s tastes and using this information in a manner that runs afoul of the 4th Amendment by itself.”

        That’s a straw man argument. I never claimed that there was a constitutional problem; on the contrary, I pointed out that there would need to be legislation in order to restrict such practices, because the Fourth Amendment by itself won’t protect us.

        “Let me give you some parameters”

        Your example suggests that you don’t understand how an algorithm can work.

        They generally don’t begin with you as an individual, but with red flags or patterns of behavior that are deemed to be questionable. Data is collected, negative patterns and markers are identified, and those who exhibit certain undesirable characteristics or behaviors are then further scrutinized to determine whether they belong on some sort of short list for more detailed surveillance and possible prosecution.

        The more data that is made available, the more patterns that can be discerned. A fast processor with access to data can find patterns that humans piecing it together by hand would likely never find. The more that the technology improves, the more useful data is produced that can then be used for such purposes.

      • 0 avatar

        Dukeboy, have you ever heard of Moore’s law?

        Or, to approach it from a different direction, do you have any idea how much a terabyte of data storage capacity cost in 2002 vs how much it costs now?

    • 0 avatar

      This assumes that plate capture cameras are limited to police cruisers. As the costs come down there will be increased incentive to place them in static, high traffic locations. And since these are public locations, there is no expectation of privacy. Once enough of these are in place it be virtually impossible to travel thru a major metro area without leaving a trace, and searching those digitized records will be easy. Either the accumulated data must be deleted after a few days or it must require a court order to review.

      • 0 avatar

        As to the amount of cameras from what I understand Homeland security is providing the funding and the camera companies are offering large discounts to get in the door. I first saw them here in CT about 2 years ago. From what I understand now several dept in the states have as many as 20-30% of their cruisers up fitted which is pretty amazing acceptance in a 2 year span. I heard a story on NPR the other day about this and they were following a small VT town that had two systems already. They also said that while some dept’s were dumping the data after 6 months others have kept all scans and loaded them into a database.

  • avatar

    There has to be a way we can defeat the cameras…

    • 0 avatar
      Freddy M

      mythbusters has tried every conceivable tactic to no avail.

    • 0 avatar

      The only way to defeat the cameras is with dealer paper/vinyl plates, but you’re asking to get stopped if they get faded or you don’t keep your car extremely clean with tires dipped in Armour All.

      Technically, they can get you stopped the minute you drive a 2013 off the showroom, but I keep my real plates underneath so if I’m stopped and called out on them, I can tear them off in front of the officer and avoid a fix-it ticket.

    • 0 avatar

      If you can hear this then you are the resistance.

  • avatar

    The belief that the government can track citizens through careful observation and meticulously maintained databases requires the corresponding belief that government is competant. Most of us who work with the government find this humorous.

    You should worry more about whether or not Target knows your daugther is pregnant before you do.

    • 0 avatar

      I’m not comfortable relying on our government’s incompetence to keep it from tracking all its citizens. We need to set some ground rules about privacy and data retention so that in the future (when computing becomes even more automated) a single, motivated, charismatic person cannot rise to power and make use of these erstwhile latent capabilities. Imagine if Hitler had this in the 1920s and ’30s.

    • 0 avatar

      Somewhat reassuring, but I’m cheap and don’t want to pay for data collection and related costs even if the gubmint is incompetent. Let’s not get into when the gubmint is incompetent but still determines that some random someone is a threat and comes down like a ton of bricks on them. Botched SWAT raids are a good example.

    • 0 avatar

      It’s not so much that government is competent or not—any more than any large bureaucratic entity—it’s the this kind of thing can open the door the casual violations of rights and tips the scales heavily against individuals.

      It’s very easy to see how technology like this would allow micro-taxation and profiling by government, in the same way it allows hypertargeted marketing by corporations. Both aren’t necessarily effective, both are addictive for the people the manage them, and both can have tragic fallout if the data gets into the wrong hands.

      Cash-strapped local and superlocal governments are eyeing this kind of information because it’s much more palatable to nickel-and-dime than tax raises or other “hard decisions”. Imagine what happens when some paeon at city hall accidentally discloses police records, or sells it to someone who isn’t bound by law or morality.

  • avatar

    This is why I drive without plates and walk around wearing a full Batman costume.

  • avatar

    I may have seen this tech in use about a year ago in MD. On the DC Beltway I was just behind a pimped Merc CLS in the next lane, and noticed a state police cruiser start following the Merc. Neither I nor the CLS were doing anything wrong, but after about 30 seconds the Merck got pulled over. It did seems like the police had run a quick reference about either the car or owner.

  • avatar

    Here in Switzerland, the police will close the autobahn at a natural choke point, like a rest area or service plaza. At the exit ramp, where the traffic has been slowed to 40 or 50 kmh stands a Volvo wagon with its hatch open, and inside is a camera.

    I don’t know what they scan for, nor do I know how ling they retain it, but at minimum they are scanning the front plate. If, for whatever reason, one fits their profile or matches something in their scan, one is invited to pull into a parking slot for further inspection.

    I encounter these controlls 1 or 2 x/yr and never have been pulled over (guess a Brabus smart car is the wrong profile for a hoodlum).

    Oddly, last night, I went thru one of these controls in my home state if Sankt Gallen. We are on the border to Liechtenstein and Austria, and with that Eastern Europe and the Balkans, so our state is a natural transit route to points east. I noted the plates on the cars in the inspection slots were from De, ZH, TG, as well as a few others I didn’t catch.

    As for national ID cards, the US essentially has the risk of these but without the convenience of them. How does anybody who ever bought something in a store where their name was used (cc, dc, sdc, warranty form, etc.) have any assurance that that firm is obligated to provide that info to the card issuers or to sime information pooling organization to which the store is a member, or has not sold the pic and name to some other entity.

    States already share data (receiving a share of the fines in the process) regarding traffic citations, does that sharing extend to ones photo? I wouldn’t be surprised. The states receive a lot of federal money related to the interstate hwy system and various traffic improvement grants. Do they have to provide drivers ID pics in exchange? I don’t know, but I’m sure it has been desired by several federal departments more than once. does the fed have access to a state’s database? AFAIK, this is possible state to state, so a fed tie-in wouldn’t surprise me.

    The US suffers under insecure borders and uncontrolled illegal immigration. The USA exists to first look after the interests of its citizens and doesn’t exist to provide a place for every person suffering under a bad foreign government. Good immigrants benefit everybody, bad ones cause a drain on enforcement and welfare resources. Having secure borders and good ID would lead to better enforcement and gradually improve a lot of things.

    We are all in untold databases, yet we can’t effectively get a handle on illegal immigration… as in all simple questions that don’t have a logical answer I ask: What parties, responsible as the stewards of good government, are benefitting from this, what red herrings are they throwing out, and why?

  • avatar

    I’m not surprised this took hold in the People’s Republic of Maryland (PROM). Our Glorious Leader O’Malley and the Politburo in Annapolis will probably use ALPR to make sure you visit one of their ever-increasing number of casinos.

  • avatar
    George B

    Some bright infrared LEDs around the license plate would probably temporarily blind the camera without interfering with the ability of a person to read the license plate.

  • avatar

    Every once in a while, the ACLU gets something right. This is one of those times.

    • 0 avatar

      I read through all the comments to make sure I didn’t repost this. That’s exactly what I thought after reading the article.

    • 0 avatar

      I was waiting for this. The ACLU gets things right most of the time. The trouble is that, occasionally, they do something that rubs someone’s pet ideological crusade the wrong way, or plays for the wrong team.

      This includes me, too, by the way, and I’m a dedicated pinko.

      I did find it amusingly hypocritical to watch conservatives (who, by and large, ought to and used to line up behind them) vilify the ACLU when they started to come down on certain Republican pet projects.

  • avatar

    I agree!
    I don’t want to be tracked,studied or used as an example.
    I pay my taxes and work to support my family.Leave me the hell alone!
    Maybe I should fertilize my back yard with ‘F_ __k
    Y_ u!
    I would give up this technology in a minute if it would guard my privacy!
    well except for TTAC!

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