By on November 18, 2010

If you read one thing today, read “Ghosts Of The Old GM” by Paul Clemens in today’s NY Times. At a time of increasing triumphalism over the “success” of the Auto Bailout, Clemens unflinchingly reminds us of the terrible price we’ve paid to bring America’s auto industry back to halting life. From deserted plants, to the world of “surplus industry service providers” (yes, taking apart industry is an industry), Clemens chases down the the truth with tenacity:

For General Motors, divided into its “Old” and “New” halves, there’s an inescapable paradox: the only possible route to future profitability is to create, through plant closings, monuments to past unprofitability. Old G.M. may have gone away for the purposes of the stock offering, but it didn’t go away in what might rightfully be called actuality.

And this actuality spares neither feelings nor political agendas nor abstraction of any kind. It just is.

I understand why Old G.M. has faded to the background, but my problem with the current news foreground is this: I can’t consistently remember what I.P.O. even stands for. And, while I know that they exist, I wonder, do I.P.O.’s actually exist? How would I recognize an I.P.O. if I bumped into one?

I do know what closed auto plants look like, though, and I bump into plenty of them on my daily drives through Detroit. Depending on the day, I’ll pass by the old Continental plant, the old Budd plant, the old Packard plant and the old Fisher Body plant, among others.

The author of Made In Detroit and the soon-to-be-released Punching Out: One Year in a Closing Auto Plant closes with a gut punch that echoes from the factory to the White House.

Across the nation, as in Detroit, there is an economic disconnect, a split between what the economic numbers say and how things feel on the ground. The economy is growing, but the unemployment rate hasn’t budged. The recession officially ended in June 2009, but more jobs have been lost than have been added since that “ending.”

Handling this disconnect requires political acuity. It brings to mind something Philip Roth once said about those who have little feel for literature and the texture of lived experience it provides and so “theorize” it. Mr. Roth imagined a scene of a father giving his son this advice while attending a baseball game: “Now, what I want you to do is watch the scoreboard. Stop watching the field. Just watch what happens when the numbers change on the scoreboard. Isn’t that great?” Then Mr. Roth asks: “Is that politicizing the baseball game? Is that theorizing the baseball game? No, it’s having not the foggiest idea in the world what baseball is.”

It’ll be fun, for a day or two, to look at the scoreboard, and to see what G.M.’s shares are going for: $26? $29? $33? $35? The numbers on the exchange will change; it’ll be great, and a welcome, temporary relief from the numbers, still difficult to comprehend, of jobs lost and plants closed. Soon enough, though, we’ll have to go back to watching what’s actually happening on the field, where there’s still a blowout in progress, with the home team way behind, and no one, seemingly, with the foggiest idea what to do about it.

Read the whole thing.

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34 Comments on “Must Read: “Ghosts Of The Old GM”...”


  • avatar

    That same photograph was in my Sociology textbook…
    As for the GM I.P.O.- I wish them the best of luck, but we’ll see what happens…

  • avatar
    V572625694

    Well, there’s triumphalism and there’s Schadenfreude. What alternative would’ve been better? It’s not clear why a guy who can’t remember what IPO stands for is writing articles about IPOs. The writer says, with withering New York scorn for the Midwest and the possibility that somebody who didn’t go to Harvard should be able to send his kids to college or own a house with a yard around it: “In this part of the country, the auto bailouts were the ‘good’ bailouts, as opposed to the bailout of Wall Street.”

    It’s hard not to agree with the people “in this part of the country”:  it’s better to spend tax money to save jobs in the Midwest than it is to pay bonuses at Goldman Sachs.

    • 0 avatar
      BMWfan

      I agree with you 100%. One only has to watch an episode of “undercover boss” to see that most of these money guys don’t know their a$$ from a hole in the ground. If our military was comprised of these geeks, we would be wiped out in one day. Most of the midwestern people I have met are good, hardworking people who were sold out by the guys at the top. We need to see some perp walks again to show that there is equal justice in this country.

    • 0 avatar

      The writer says, with withering New York scorn for the Midwest
      Like the man said, read the whole thing. Sorry, but I’m a Detroiter, born and bred, and if I’m not mistaken, I’m the one who gave Ed the tip about Clemens’ article. Rather than scorn, I felt a real sense of empathy and personal loss.
      They’re old and unwanted, and as I’m from Detroit, where one can’t help but develop a fondness for the forgotten, I find myself thinking of Old G.M. and its old plants even as press attention turns to the new company and the initial public offering that’s supposed to help it pay off the $40 billion it still owes the government.
      I understand why Old G.M. has faded to the background, but my problem with the current news foreground is this: I can’t consistently remember what I.P.O. even stands for. And, while I know that they exist, I wonder, do I.P.O.’s actually exist? How would I recognize an I.P.O. if I bumped into one?
      I do know what closed auto plants look like, though, and I bump into plenty of them on my daily drives through Detroit. Depending on the day, I’ll pass by the old Continental plant, the old Budd plant, the old Packard plant and the old Fisher Body plant, among others.
      For the better part of a year in 2007 and ’08, I paid visits to the old Budd Company stamping plant on Detroit’s East Side.

    • 0 avatar
      M 1

      It’s hard not to agree with the people “in this part of the country”:  it’s better to spend tax money to save jobs in the Midwest than it is to pay bonuses at Goldman Sachs.
       
      Translation: CNN didn’t tell me about the $10 million golden parachute paid to GM CEO Wagoner, or the $13 million in other retirement and pension benefits. I just know “banking is bad, because it’s hard to understand.”
       
      Remember all those grim, suddenly-unemployed people marching out of Bear Stearns? Newsflash: more than just a handful of well-compensated brokers comprise the total workforce of the financial industry. Maybe your news outlets mentioned the bloodbath of banking layoffs during the past 36 months? I believe the estimate was 250,000 jobs on this go-around — some estimates ran as high as one third of all financial sector jobs.
       
      Cry me a river about overpaid mostly-unskilled union pukes losing their entitlements.

  • avatar
    BMWfan

    As much as I was against bailing out a company that could not perform, I feel that it had to be done to preserve some sort of manufacturing capability in this country. If God forbid, we get into another world war, we need to be able to manufacture our war machines on a large and rapid scale. We certainly can’t count on China for this manufacturing, as any conflict may include them as adversaries. My Father, may he rest in peace, predicted this decline in manufacturing way back in the 70’s. I wish he was still around so that he could see how right he was. I sincerely wish the new GM the best of luck, but they have a lot to prove.

    • 0 avatar
      redmondjp

      BMWfan,

      I’m with you, but it’s already way too late for us I’m afraid.  We are so dependent upon China and other countries that it’s not even funny.  We don’t even have the tooling to make the tooling to make the stuff that you make things with any longer.  And unless a state of emergency/war was declared in which we swept away all environmental, permitting, and worker-safety rules, it would still take years just to break ground on a plant that may actually build somthing a few years later at the soonest.

      I’ve been reading up on the history of Flint, MI (home of numerous closed and now-razed GM facilities and were I attended GMI, now Kettering Univ) and Kokomo, IN (where I worked at Delco Electronics as a co-op student, and where there is currently close to a million square feet of manufacturing space that is virtually empty), and looking back to a century ago in both of these places, one realizes how far we have fallen from the manufacturing zenith of our country. 

      Both of these towns were brimming with manufacturing activity a century ago, and had thousands of skilled workers in every trade imaginable.  Not to mention that we were much more self-reliant as far as obtaining and processing the raw materials , mining, smelting, and casting our own iron and steel and pot metals to boot.  All of this is largely gone from our shores today. 

      And there were hundreds and hundreds of other towns and cities across our great land just like Kokomo and Flint.  Now these two places, along with many more, are slowly dying away, with only government, health-care, and educational facilities providing the bulk of the jobs left (all taxpayer-supported in one way or another).

      The more I study and learn about our past in this country, the less optimistic I am about the future.  Say what you will, but manufacturing built the middle class in this country and helped us win two world wars as well.  We can’t just replace it with software jobs and Walmarts!

      America has been defeated, not by military might, but by simple economics . . . remember the Golden Rule:  he who has the gold, makes the rules.

    • 0 avatar

      Indeed, the loss of Mr. Kaiser was a near mortal blow to the US defense industry, the loss of the strategic cast steel industry is worser. I’m frantic with worry, if a REAL WAR breaks out the only thing we could do is NUKE THE SHIT OUT OF OUR ENEMY.

      There…. that hold your monsters at bay for a bit?

      We won’t need jeeps, cheap shit M1-Carbines, or Ronson nor Zippo tanks. Jesus.

    • 0 avatar
      BMWfan

      redmondjp

      Manufacturing is what allowed me to have the life I have now. My father busted his butt in a dirty, greasy factory for 50 years so that I could go to college and get a decent job. Thankfully I watched my Father, and heeded his mantra of “you can steal more with you eyes than you ever can with you hands” and developed mechanical skills. I hope you are wrong about it being too late for us, but I do fear for the future of this country. I am kind of glad that I am older, as the younger generation will be paying for our sins for a long time.

    • 0 avatar
      bikegoesbaa

      This is all very unfortunate.  It is also untrue.  Here are two facts:
      -The US manufactures more now than at any point in its history.
      -The US manufactures more than any other nation.
      Don’t believe me?  Look it up.  The consumer goods you see on the shelves at the local big box store are not representative of the global economy.
       
      You are perhaps confusing manufacturing output with manufacturing jobs.  The first one has increased dramatically since whatever arbitrary “golden days” you are pining for.  The second has fallen, and will continue to fall in the future.  This is because technology and efficiency improvements enable fewer people to build more and better stuff.  There’s simply no reason to have a factory with 1,000 workers when 80 can generate the same output.
       
      Although civilians and politicians are enamored with the concept, nobody in the military thinks in terms of a WW2-style “retooling” of manufacturing plants for armament production.  There are two main reasons for this:
      1)  Civilian and military technology has diverged. Back in 1942 you could retool a car plant to make bombers because the fundamental technologies and materials were similar.  This is not the case today.  How much titanium welding does your average auto plant do?
      2)  The US has vast stockpiles of military hardware. Prior to the WW2, the US military was relatively small and did not have tons of equipment set aside ready to “mobilize” on demand.  After Korea, they started to establish this capability.  Now we have mountains of equipment on hand to be used as needed; everything from bullets and magazines to repair parts and whole vehicles.
       
      So, the complex stuff can’t be built in a civilian plant, and the simple stuff already exists by the ton just waiting to be pulled off the shelf and used.
       
      There may be valid reasons to support US-based manufacturing, but “What will we do if WW3 breaks out!” isn’t one of them.

    • 0 avatar

      bikegoesbaa,
       
      Most of what you say is true but I do believe that the aerospace, defense and automotive industries share a common supplier base, at least in part. BTW, the reason why we have a dedicated defense industry is because of Charlie Wilson, GM CEO and head of the War Production Board. He told Pres.Truman that for the next war, there’d be no time to change over to military production, and later became Eisenhower’s Sec. of Def.
       
      But the question that I have for you is that if the US does so much manufacturing, just try to get something manufactured here. It’s hard. The vast majority of machine shops, the folks who make the aforementioned tools that make the tools, have closed up. Sure, there’s a lot of high end materials science and prototyping ability here, but a lot of the small to mid size production companies, in a variety of industries just don’t exist here any more.
       
      Around Detroit there used to be a ton of small machine shops. They made their nut with jobs subcontracted, ultimately, from the car companies, but they still devoted a lot of energy to small and medium size runs. I remember in the early 1970s, working on my brother’s Mini, we needed a brake caliper piston, the old ones were pitted. We couldn’t get the OEM part, or it was expensive, so my dad and I got out the Yellow Pages, found one shop that did hard cadmium plating, another that did centerless grinding and had the pistons plated and brought back to original specs. The ads in the Yellow Pages mentioned short, medium and long production runs. Most of those businesses have disappeared.
       
      Sure, big companies can produce lots of product from automated facilities, but just try to invent something and get even a short production run made without having to deal with an overseas company.
       

    • 0 avatar
      windswords

      1)  “Civilian and military technology has diverged. Back in 1942 you could retool a car plant to make bombers because the fundamental technologies and materials were similar.  This is not the case today.  How much titanium welding does your average auto plant do?”
      ;
      I’m afraid you have missed the point, which I made in a TTAC comment many moons ago (by the way, we need a way to sign into our account and look up our old postings so we can re-use them if need be or just to refresh our minds, how about it?).
      ;
      Sure, a GM, Ford, or Chrysler factory can’t make an F-22 Raptor. We get that. But they can make the 20m shell casings for the Raptor’s gun. Or the F-22’s wheels while the tires are being made at the Goodyear plant in Akron OH. Or the wiring harness for the plane’s avionics. You need to stop thinking about complete weapons systems (even Lockheed doesn’t make 100% of the Raptor), and start thinking about gun barrels, shells, wheels, missile wings, fuel pumps, igniters, tank treads, etc.
      ;
      The other thing you haven’t considered is the engineering talent that the auto makers and their suppliers have. If you do any research about previous wars you will find out that MAJOR contributions to the war effort were made by these folks and those in academia who were NOT a part of the defense industry. Allpar has a great series of articles on Chrysler’s contribution to the war effort in WWII. And it wasn’t just the factories making stuff. Their engineers were instrumental in overcoming technical hurdles in the Manhattan project, the B-29 bomber engines, and the mass production of the Sherman tank. I urge anyone with an interest to read those articles and you will come to a fuller understanding of the need for an industrial base if you don’t want a war to go nuclear because you have literally run out of “guns and ammo”.

    • 0 avatar
      bumpy ii

      “The ads in the Yellow Pages mentioned short, medium and long production runs. Most of those businesses have disappeared.”

      Those companies disappeared because the demand for their services evaporated. People don’t need to have their brake caliper pistons reground and replated because they don’t pit in the first place anymore. A lot of that small-scale machine business existed due to the (deliberately, to keep first costs down) poor durability of the OEM parts.

  • avatar
    Sinistermisterman

    Those last three paragraphs really resonate with me. It often scares me how far removed from reality so many bankers and economists really are. So many spend their time chewing through numbers and statistics trying to look for ‘patterns’ where money can be made, yet so little time and attention appears to be paid to what is really happening.

    • 0 avatar
      M 1

      Are you kidding me? Bankers are probably the number one consumer of news in this country. Probably globally, actually. When I worked at one of the Evil Brokerages, you couldn’t walk 20 feet without bumping into a gigantic TV tuned to one of the news stations. There are even entire systems of trading based on the impact of a whole array of regularly scheduled news events (earnings announcements, government reports of various types, etc.)

      And it has always been thus. 20+ years ago when I was a programmer working for an individual wealthy investor, before the Internet was used by anyone but college students and CompuServ cost $4 per minute on long-distance dial-up, news was such an important fixture in trading that I had a giant satellite dish outside my office that fed us current news and data realtime.
       
      What should scare you is how the public is simply swallowing the tripe being fed to them by clueless TV news journalists looking for a convenient scapegoat. “Ignore FNMA/FHMC and Congressional mandates for low income borrowing etc etc … the real bad guys are the ones we forced to take a risk in the first place.”

      Economists, on the other hand, are basically respectable-looking fiction authors.

  • avatar
    gslippy

    I can’t tell whether the writer favors the bailout or not, and what – if anything – it has to do with GM’s IPO today.
     
    Even those who opposed the bailout (like me) must admit that without it, the sad story of plant closings would have been much worse.
     
    His story is really a lament of Old GM’s ways.  Closed plants are not a new fixture in Detroit; it’s been going on for a very long time, just as it has been here in western PA and throughout the Rust Belt.
     
    Lest he forget, the auto business is a business, and GM’s viability is ultimately determined by the cold, unemotional numbers.  Sure, the numbers are a result of what’s happening ‘on the field’, but one benefit and purpose of the IPO is to detach the emotion of the bailout and plant closings from the actual value of the business.  I think that’s a good thing, so now GM can be judged/evaluated as a business, with less emotion tied to its recent path to survival.
     
    “Government Motors” no more – hooray.  May General Motors live long and prosper, even though I doubt it can.

    • 0 avatar

      His story is really a lament of Old GM’s ways.  Closed plants are not a new fixture in Detroit; it’s been going on for a very long time, just as it has been here in western PA and throughout the Rust Belt.

      Less a lament of Old GM’s ways as a lament about a way of life working in the auto industry.
       
      As for closed plants, since you’re not from Detroit, you didn’t get the reference when he talked about driving past the closed Continental plant, the Packard plant and the old Fisher Body plant. The Continental plant’s been closed my entire life, and the Packard plant’s been a hulk since the late 1950s. I think they stopped using Fisher Body in the 70s. Read the whole thing, like Ed said. Closed plants are a way of life in SEMI.

    • 0 avatar
      gslippy

      @Ronnie Schreiber:  I did read the whole thing, and pretty well got the references to those old plants.  Which reinforces my point that the IPO has little to do with old, closed plants.

  • avatar
    Zammy

    I don’t even understand what people mean when they say GM was “saved” or “bailed out”.
    GM went bankrupt and was liquidated.  It continues to exist as a debt-ridden corpse that will never rise again.
    A completely new corporation was formed, given the “GM” name, given many of the “GM” assets, and is now being trotted around on the stock market.  But this new corporation has no relationship to GM.  If one of your children died, and you had a new child and gave him the same name, that doesn’t mean that you saved the child.

  • avatar
    John Horner

    So would closing every one of GM’s facilities in 2008 have been better? What, exactly, is the point here?
     

    • 0 avatar
      M 1

      Ladies and gentlemen, we have a winner.

    • 0 avatar
      OldandSlow

      The point as I see it is internet critics, who have no experience managing a large automotive conglomerate, feel it is their duty to beat a dead horse from every angle possible.
       
      Even when there is hope that GM may live on to fight another day, it’s critics will state that the situation at GM is hopeless, over and over again.

  • avatar

    And I still want to know who owns the Pontiac brand, General Motors or Motors Liquidation.

  • avatar
    bikegoesbaa

    The way the author harps about the used equipment going to Mexico and Brazil may give the casual reader a false understanding.
     
    This equipment isn’t going out of the country because “we don’t make things in ‘merica no more”.
     
    It’s going out of the country because no American manufacturing plant wants screw around with obsolete worn-out 60-year-old presses and machine tools.
     
    I work in an American factory that does a lot of high-quality high-volume sheet metal work, and produces a couple million dollars worth of product a day; roughly a third of which is exported.
     
    All of our equipment is less than ten years old and fully automated.  In my experience, this is typical for successful American volume manufacturers.  Any equipment that is not up to this standard would just be expensive dead weight on the line.
     
    We wouldn’t take the machines from a condemned auto plant with holes in the roof if you gave them to us.  I’m glad somebody in Brazil and Mexico wants them, because we sure don’t.

    • 0 avatar
      BMWfan

      bikegoesbaa,

      Thank you for your earlier post clarifying manufacturing jobs, vs manufacturing output. You make some very valid points, and your response shows why I like this site so much. It is frequented by intelligent people that can clarify why things are the way they are without getting into a flame war at the slightest provocation. There is one point you make though that I have to disagree with:

      There may be valid reasons to support US-based manufacturing, but “What will we do if WW3 breaks out!” isn’t one of them.

      When a potential enemy has the capability to throw a half a billion of their numbers our way, I believe that having the ability to get our hands on every bit of hardware available would be a good thing.

    • 0 avatar
      ClutchCarGo

      “When a potential enemy has the capability to throw a half a billion of their numbers our way, I believe that having the ability to get our hands on every bit of hardware available would be a good thing.”

      I believe that the wartime manufacturing argument is a canard. In the age of WMDs, the notion of large scale miltary combat requiring vast quantities of military hardware is obsolete. Physical battle between adversaries that could mount such campaigns would be so ruinous as to be unthinkable to those parties, and Iraq/Afghanistan have demonstrated that facing off directly with a major military force is suicidal. Asymetric warfare (IEDs, suicide attacers) is so much more effective against outsized opponents. Warfare between major powers will be conducted electronically and/or economically.

    • 0 avatar
      blau

      clutch is clearly right.  screw manufacturing capacity, i want to know that we’re spending defense money on stuff like this:
      http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1314580/Stuxnet-worm-targeted-Iranian-nuclear-power-station-sophisticated-virus-attack-ever.html

    • 0 avatar
      dewfish

      I also have to side with bikegoesbaa on this whole WW3 scenario. If there is one thing the military-industrial complex doesn’t need, it is “help” building weapons of war. It’s not like it was back then. War is an industry in and of itself nowadays.

  • avatar
    yo yo

    There is no sens in crying over spilled milk now. What is done is done. They had terrible management the last decade. What most people don’t realize is that when corporations change CEO they essentially change souls. Home Depot was screwed up by some loser and their CEO got a 50, 100, million dollar separation check. I don’t remember exactly how much.
     
    We should cry over the milk that is still being spilled. As the US governments continues to subsidize of the Japanese and Korean economy’s. And that needs to stop. I am tired of paying higher taxes so they can pay lower taxes. They should stand up and take responsibility for there own self defense. They are not some third world chumps who cannot take care of themselves. We are spending over 20 billion yearly for Japan, another 20 plus billion for Korea and who knows how much for the other countries. The Philippines were man enough to take responsibility for their territories and these Asian countries should be too.
     
    We should NOT be subsidizing foreign economies. We have enough problems here in our country and MY tax payer money should be directed to our schools and our infrastructure.

  • avatar
    Zackman

    Agreed. Basically what I’ve been saying for awhile as far as GM and the government. As far as the other points, in theory, one should support one’s home base, but in this global situation? Governments do what they do for reasons not always understood from an individual’s perspective. That’s not offering much, but it’s all I have for now!

  • avatar
    DC Bruce

    Pass the hankies . . .
     
    Lets begin with the ending — the Roth metaphor of the baseball game.  Of course, if you just looked at the scoreboard, you wouldn’t understand the game.  But, if you were, say, from China and looked at what was happening on the field, would you understand the game?  For those North American TTAC people, have you ever watched a cricket match?  The first time I ever saw one was when I was travelling in England in 1971 and saw one on British television in a pub.  I confessed to one of my friendly fellow-drinkers that I found the whole thing totally baffling.  They reassured me that, despite being English, they did,too.
    My point here is that an understanding of baseball requires more than simply watching the game, it requires an understanding of the rules of the game, the strategies involved and, at the most basic level, simple physics.  Likewise, looking at the hulks of closed factories, or of crews dismantling those factories is equally unlikely to bring the observer to any kind of meaningful “understanding” any more than being out in a thunderstorm brings a particular understanding of the weather.
    It brings and understanding of the experience of it . . . and, to the extent that the complaint is that, for economists, B-school professors, various Washington, DC types, all of this is an abstraction, that is a fair complaint.
    But it doesn’t bring understanding.
    If one wants understanding, then perhaps one should study, in detail, the exodus of manufacturing from California — or the Rust Belt — some of which has gone to other parts of the country.
    If I was face to face with this author, I would ask him about automobile factories in Tennessee, South Carolina, and Alabama, none which existed when the closed plants he sentimentalizes were operating.  Why did those plants “move”?
    The reality is that what he is seeing is the detritus of the old GM-Chrysler-Ford oligopoly that had its heyday in the 1950s.  By the time World War 2 broke out, the consolidation of the US auto industry was just about complete . . . and the war finished the job.  The remaining 3 companies, as would be true in any similar situation, realized they had pricing power and they used it.  Politically, they understand that they had to share the wealth with their workers, so they did.  Their potential overseas competitors — in Japan, Germany, Italy, France and Great Britain were, in varying degrees devastated by the war and were operating in economies that were also devastated by the war, in a way that the US economy was not.   So, for 15 -20 years, the Big 3 were in Fat City.
    Now they’re not, and like most former monopoly, or oligopoly businesses, (see, e.g. AT&T) they have had a very difficult time adapting to a competitive environment.
    So, I would not make US automakers or US steel makers the proxies for US manufacturers in general.  They have their own special set of handicaps and problems.
    Other US manufacturers — who never enjoyed being part of an oligopoly or a monopoly — are in much better shape, e.g. Caterpillar, Deere.
    Certainly, there are US policies that discourage manufacturing: environmental regulations, labor laws, policies that increase the cost of energy.  Likewise, postwar policies that allowed the US market to support the rehabilitation of the industrial base of nations defeated in World War 2 — Germany and Japan, in particular — have outlived their usefulness and probably aren’t even beneficial to those countries’ economies, in the long run (viz, Japan).  And the prospect of China following in Germany, Japan and even Korea’s footsteps is a real problem, if only because of the much greater scale of what China is doing and the inability of the US economy to absorb imports on that volume is becoming very obvious.
    But, as with the fact that you have to understand the rules and physics, not just watch the game, in order to understand baseball, if you want to understand what’s happening to US manufacturing, you have to do a lot more than drive by old auto plants. . .  or even work in them.

  • avatar

    haha, this whole operation is a scam upon the public. i saw it coming, called it, and now it’s happening.

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