The Truth About Cars » bob gregorie The Truth About Cars is dedicated to providing candid, unbiased automobile reviews and the latest in auto industry news. Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:00:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 The Truth About Cars is dedicated to providing candid, unbiased automobile reviews and the latest in auto industry news. The Truth About Cars no The Truth About Cars (The Truth About Cars) 2006-2009 The Truth About Cars The Truth About Cars » bob gregorie A Model Collection of Automotive History Mon, 13 Jul 2015 14:00:46 +0000 Polymath sports marketer Fred Sharf is known in the art world for finding underappreciated genres, collecting them, researching and writing about them at an academic level, curating exhibits about them, and then donating much of what he collects to museums so others can share his eclectic interests. Among those many interests, Sharf has almost singlehandedly gotten […]

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Polymath sports marketer Fred Sharf is known in the art world for finding underappreciated genres, collecting them, researching and writing about them at an academic level, curating exhibits about them, and then donating much of what he collects to museums so others can share his eclectic interests. Among those many interests, Sharf has almost singlehandedly gotten the fine art world to start appreciating the art involved with making automobiles. Drawings and paintings long considered disposable styling studio work product by car companies are now considered collectible and worthy of art museum exhibitions.


Of course, two dimensional artwork isn’t the only thing generated by an automotive design studio. Clay and plaster models in 1:10, 1:8, 1:4, 1:2 and full scales have been part of the design process since the origins of car styling and Sharf has curated museum displays featuring those models. Harley Earl is attributed with crafting the first clay styling models, while he was still making custom cars in Los Angeles, before he was hired by General Motors. Gordon Buehrig’s invention of the “styling bridge” while he was working for E.L. Cord made it possible to take precise measurements off of those models for symmetry, scaling up designs, and creating blueprints.

Today, even though all design work is done initially in the digital domain, final judgments and business decisions are made based on physical, three dimensional models. Furthermore, even though they can now digitally CNC carve a full-scale clay model directly from the digital design files, things don’t quite look the same in real life, so designers still need the skill and art of clay modelers to fine tune their designs.


If Fred Sharf has educated the art and automotive worlds about the aesthetic value of what had formerly been thrown away (or snuck out of the studio by designers proud of their work), Sam Sandifer Jr. is specifically responsible for the increased appreciation for styling models. It’s interesting to note that as we progress into the digital age, our era will produce few physical styling studio drawings and paintings like Sharf collects, but the auto industry will always have to rely on actual physical models like Sandifer collects.

The North Carolina collector has managed to track down, save from destruction, collect and now reproduce those important artifacts of automotive history. Sandifer’s dream is to open a National Museum of Automotive Design featuring the most important pieces in his collection, but for the time being he shares them at car and toy shows.


The annual Eyes on Design show held at the Edsel & Eleanor Ford estate is put on by the automotive design community in Detroit, which understands the significance and value of Sandifer’s collection and work. This year’s show had a large tent devoted to some of his more important pieces. Sandifer shared that display space with the Society of Retired Automobile Designers, one of my favorite organizations.

The three wheeler in the foreground is the model of the stillborn Dale that sat on Liz Carmichael's desk.

The three wheeler in the foreground is the model of the stillborn Dale that sat on Liz Carmichael’s desk.

Not all of Sandifer’s models were specifically styling studies. Some were also used as display pieces for executives’ desks — like the 1:10 scale 1939 Lincoln Continental that Sandifer had on display at Eyes on Design. As an artifact of automotive history, that model must surely rank very high. In the early 1940s, it sat on Edsel Ford’s desk until the scion of the Ford empire passed away from stomach cancer in 1943. It was returned to the Detroit area soon after. The Eyes on Design show at Edsel’s estate gave the model’s display special significance.


The location of a car show held by car designers at Edsel’s home is not merely coincidental. Edsel Ford had some training as a graphic artist and a collector’s eye for beautiful things. Though he probably never drew a car professionally, he can rightly be credited as one of the originators of automotive styling. It was Edsel who hired Eugene T. “Bob” Gregorie as Ford Motor Company’s first head of styling. Like Harley Earl, who couldn’t draw particularly well but could artistically wave his hand in a way that a trained stylist could understand and translate into a clay shape, Edsel had a great ability to communicate his vision to Gregorie.

After starting the video player, click on the settings icon to select 2D or your choice of 3D formats.

The ’39 Continental started out as another one of the custom cars Edsel had Gregorie design, like his 1934 Ford Speedster.

The way the popular narrative goes, Edsel had returned from a trip to Europe and asked Gregorie to come up with a custom car for him that evoked the spirit of European sports cars, hence the name Continental. Just how continental the Continental really was, though, is not clear. Gregorie’s oral history given to the University of Michigan at Dearborn in 1985 doesn’t mention any European influence. To begin with, the Continental’s design was mocked up from an existing Lincoln Zephyr model. More to the point, automotive historian Aaron Severson’s Ate Up With Motor’s history of the Continental lays out evidence that the close-coupled, two-door hardtop or convertible coupe with long-hood/short-deck proportions, a top with blind rear quarters, and a rear-mounted external spare was a predominantly American styling idiom that went back at least to the early 1920s. Stutz even sold a model then called the Continental. It should be pointed out that two classics of postwar American automotive design, the 1956 Continental Mark II and the 1964 1/2 Ford Mustang (and subsequent Mustangs), feature long hoods and short trunk lids and many other elements with the ’39 Lincoln. Continental styling is apparently as American as apple strudel pie.

Gregorie described the genesis of the car in the 1985 oral history. Rather than summarize it, I’m just going to excerpt the original source. I can’t tell you the story better than Bob Gregorie can.

A: By the time — let’s see, it was in October/November of ’39, about four years later, that the thought came to me. We began discussing a special-built car again, and, of course, Mr. Ford’s initial thought on this special-built car was to be a Ford to glorify the Ford line. Whenever the suggestion of building that car at a Ford branch plant or interrupting Ford production in any way which it would have done, the Rouge plant fought us on it. It was just a nuisance value — anything that would interrupt production.

Q:      You had a quite a bit of problem with people like…

A:      Oh, [C.E.] Sorensen and Pete Martin — the production people.

Q:      Especially since you were working for Edsel Ford.

A:      Yes. They considered it a fruitless gesture on Mr. Ford’s part. I refer to as being frivolous. I think they did too. Yeah, that’s the term they use today — frivolous. Gives the “boy” something to play with, see?

So, with Edsel Ford we might talk the thing over every few days, or every week or so, and he finally got up to the Mercury — would it be feasible to do it with the Mercury? Well, there again, we’re up against the same problem with the production plants. There’s no place in a production plant for that, without creating dissension and problems, see. No one could see a profit in it. So, at this point, an idea struck me. The old K Model Lincoln was being phased out — had been phased out, and we had one whole bay along Livernois Avenue — the Lincoln plant — where a certain amount of custom work had been done on the custom bodies that had come in the past. We had a nucleus of custom body workers at the Lincoln plant — maybe a couple hundred of them that did custom trim work,­ custom paint work on the custom bodies after they arrived and mounted on the old K Model chassis. So, the idea struck me. I said, “Gee, here we’ve got the Zephyr over there. We’ve got our engine components. It’s all under one roof, and we have one whole bay of this plant that’s not being used, and, at that point, without going into that phase of it with Mr. Ford — maybe I discussed it briefly, but I sketched up — I took a tenth size blueprint — a catalog sheet — what they refer to as a salesman’s handbook print, reduced down, showing the overall dimensions — head room and all that, you know. I took just a yellow pencil, a yellow crayon pencil, and I sketched in a lower hood.

Q:      You’d taken a Zephyr?

A:      Just to sample it — Zephyr sedan, see and moved the windshield back, lowered the steering column. Like you do if you were trying to draw a fancy version of a sporty car — what you do to change it. Well, the things that came to mind at that point were that the chassis didn’t need lowering. You see, the Zephyr was designed with the concept of a chair­ high seat.

Q:      Which at one point they had.

A:      They had a chair-high seat — about an 18 inch seat in the thing, and the floor pan was very low — very shallow — the car didn’t have much of a side rail because of unit construction. It had a very shallow, maybe 3 inch side rail, something like that. It was silly, you know. I thought, well, we’ve already got a car that’s down fairly low — the foundation of it, the floor pan, see? So, I drew this thing up and sketched in the roof line, and the trunk on the back and whatnot. That afternoon Edsel Ford came by on his usual visit, and I said, “How do you like this?” He said, “Oh boy, that looks great, looks good.” So, I said, “How about making a little model? We’ll make a little tenth-size model, 17/18 inches long.” So, I had Gene Adams, a trade school boy there, I said, “Let’s make a profile template of this for modeling,” see? So, I had him glue it on a piece of masonite, you know, pressed wood, 1/8″ masonite-­ glued it on there with some rubber cement, and then he punched the pro­file and put it in a jigsaw and sawed it out, see? That was the only drawing that was ever made of the car. As people think … when I tell them it was designed or sketched in 35 minutes or so, why — well, that’s God’s honest truth. The profile [was] pleasing. That’s what sold it. He said, “That’s it,” That was all that was ever made. It was a crude, little sketch. Edsel Ford loved those simple sketches.

Q:      Was this ’38?

A:      This was in ’39.

Q:      Early ’39?

A:      No, this was in probably November of ’39. Along in November, I’d say. [Mr. Gregorie amended this to 1938.]

Q:      So, he liked it immediately.

A:      Yes, we had this little 10th size scaling bridge, the model wheelbase was only 10 inches, and we modeled it right in my office on a table, and Gene Adams and I modeled it right up with our hands. It wasn’t a whole car design. We had the front end and fenders.

Q:      From the Zephyr?

A:      Of the Zephyr. That was the new ’38 front end, which was real slick. It had a slick front end, and the fenders were reasonably decent, so we just pieced the front fenders out. I think we used the standard rear fender and did the little tire on the back, you know, and made this pretty little clay model.

Q:      Tell us more about the tire on the back because that has become the hallmark of the Continental.

A:      Yes, well that was part of the package, I mean, it was a necessity.

Q:      But, was this your idea or did Mr. Ford like the idea from a Continental he had seen earlier?

A:      I can’t say. I just can’t pinpoint that. Well, anyway, it appeared on there. I don’t know whether it was his idea or mine — I just can’t say at this point. Well, anyway, it was immediately acceptable to him, and, in fact, the trunk was too small for a spare, so it was the only place available we felt that it would be acceptable. As we all know, rear mounted spares went “back to the year one.” It surely was not for a styling “twist,” though it apparently had that effect.

Q:      It was a collaboration.

A:      That’s right, okay. Let’s make it that way. That was part of the package. So, we did this little model up and painted it his favorite gray with white sidewalls and nice little chrome bumpers and all, you know. This all took maybe a week. He said, “Well, how long will it take you to get one ready? I’d like to see if we can have one ready for my vacation when I go to Hobe Sound, Fla.”

Q:      That’s incredible.

A:      That’s right. Took the offsets off with tenth size scaling bridge, turned the figures over to Martin Rigitko, and he made a paper draft — just a rough paper draft of it — full size and sent it over to the Lincoln plant and went ahead and built one just as quick as we could.

Q:      This is about December?

A:      By that time it would have been December. Well, anyway, by March or late February we had the car finished ready to ship down there by truck. [1939]

Q:      You shipped it down by truck.

A:      Yes. Have you seen pictures of the car and all?

Q:      Yes. Gorgeous.

A:      It was a pretty thing, but, man, it was all full of solder to smooth it up, and heavy, you know. It was beautiful to look at, but, I mean, it was strictly a hand-made mockup sort of thing. Well, Edsel Ford had the car down there for a couple weeks, and he called me on the phone one day, and he said, “Gosh, I’ve driven this car around Palm Beach ,” and he said, “I could sell a thousand of them down here right away, quick.” He said, “They couldn’t get enough of them.” So, he said, “You’d better get over to the Lincoln Plant and talk with Robbie over there [he was the Lincoln plant superintendent over there] and see what you can do to set up an arrangement for limited production.” You know, some arch presses and whatnot, so we could build a few hundred of these to start off with. So, he said, “In the meantime, you’d better start a second one going right away,” a second hand-built one to work out mechanical details like the steering column shift which was coming in for production at that time. I went over, and Robbie and I set down. We got going right away quick. I said, “The boss man said we should build a second one of these.” He said, “Oh God, not that again!” I said, “I think it’s going to jell this time. I think we have something here.” At that point I told Mr. Ford about the advantages of building it as a Lincoln. I said, “In the first place, we can get more money for this car.” This is after he decided for just a one off. This is prior to his calling me back to build more. I sent him away with that germ in his mind. I said, “Gee, we’ve got the chassis, frame, we’ve got the suspension system, we’ve got the engine, we’ve got the steering gear and all mechanical parts. We’re not interfering with any Ford production. We’ve got all components in house, right there at the Lincoln plant, and we have the people to do the nice trim work and so on.” So, it was a natural. It just fell together that way. So, of course, the rest is history.

Brochure_edited-3While the model that was on Edsel Ford’s desk was made by Gene Adams, it was likely not the same one that Gregorie described in his oral history. Still, according to Sam Sandifer, it probably was used in the styling process, perhaps for the development of the convertible roof, bumpers and other trim.

When Edsel Ford died in 1943, his office was cleaned out with most of the items put into storage, including his 1:10 scale Continental. It was discovered years later by Larry Wilson, a clay modeler who was coincidentally hired as a modeling apprentice by none other than Edsel’s father, Henry Ford. It’s still in original condition, painted the gun-metal gray that was Edsel’s favorite color for cars, though at some point it’s lost the “continental” spare tire mounted in back. Metallic grays and silvers are, to this day, considered by automotive designers to be the ideal colors to show off the shapes they design.

If Edsel Ford’s scale model of his Continental is an important piece of automotive history, Sandifer also has what could be described as a footnote to automotive history. Included in his collection is the model of the notorious Dale three wheeler that sat on the desk of fraudster Liz Carmichael, who promoted that never to be produced vehicle back in the 1970s.


While the original styling models that Sandifer has collected are very rare, he’s made it possible for you to share his passion by making fully licensed fiberglass reproductions and selling them through the 21st Century Car Company, represented by JM Model Autos. A variety of eras are represented, including the ’39 Contintental, the 1949 Ford, the Aerovette Corvette concept and the Dodge Charger III concept. Molds have been pulled from the original clay, plaster and wood models, imperfections found in the originals have been fixed, and hand laid up fiberglass replicas are being made. Sandifer is using both old world and high-tech methods. Bumpers and other trim are made from brass, using the lost wax casting method. For some of the models, period correct wheels and tires have been modeled and replicas made with 3D printers.


They’re limited editions, so even if they are repos, they’re still collectible. At typical prices of $300 to $400 each, they’re probably more of a labor of love for Sandifer than a highly profitable business venture. You can see examples of the reproductions in the gallery below.

Photos at Eyes on Design by the author.

Ronnie Schreiber edits Cars In Depth, a realistic perspective on cars & car culture and the original 3D car site. If you found this post worthwhile, you can get a parallax view at Cars In Depth. If the 3D thing freaks you out, don’t worry, all the photo and video players in use at the site have mono options.

packard-5 packard-4 packard-3 packard-2 51-ford-5 packard-1 charger-iii-8 charger-iii-7 charger-iii-6 charger-iii-5 charger-iii-4 charger-iii-3 charger-iii-2 charger-iii-1 cavalier-2 cavalier-1 aerovette-4 aerovette-3 aerovette-2 aerovette-1 51-ford-red-4 51-ford-red-2 51-ford-red-1 51-ford-in-hand 51-ford-green-3 51-ford-green-1 51-ford-6 51-ford-green-2 stude-3 stude-2 stude-1 packard-7 packard-6

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Look At What I Found! The Most Significant Car at the 2012 NAIAS: Edsel Ford’s 1934 Model 40 Special Speedster Sun, 22 Jan 2012 15:38:57 +0000 After years of retrenching, financial crisis and bankruptcies, the world’s automakers are now introducing new concept and production vehicles. The 2012 NAIAS in Detroit was one of the more product-rich big auto shows of the past decade. Just about every exhibitor at the show was revealing all-new vehicles or concepts giving us a look at […]

The post Look At What I Found! The Most Significant Car at the 2012 NAIAS: Edsel Ford’s 1934 Model 40 Special Speedster appeared first on The Truth About Cars.


After years of retrenching, financial crisis and bankruptcies, the world’s automakers are now introducing new concept and production vehicles. The 2012 NAIAS in Detroit was one of the more product-rich big auto shows of the past decade. Just about every exhibitor at the show was revealing all-new vehicles or concepts giving us a look at future production plans. Cadillac’s 3 Series fighter, the ATS, Lincoln’s all new and attractive MKZ, Ford’s Aston-Martin looking Fusion and Chrysler’s Alfa Romeo based Dodge Dart were all significant new introductions by the domestics. Toyota showed concepts that will probably end up as the next Camry and Prius (plus Lexus’ stunning LF-LC concept that will most likely not see production). Mercedes introduced the first all-new SL roadster in a decade.  Hyundai showed the highly anticipated Veloster Turbo. I could go down the list of exhibitors with other examples but you get the idea: lots of significant new product. However, over at the far end of Cobo Hall, tucked away upstairs in a corner of the Lincoln exhibit, was probably the most significant car of the entire show.  I suppose you could call it a concept car, but it represents a concept that is larger than just the design of one individual car. It’s one of the cars that can be said to have been part of the invention of automotive styling. I think that makes it the most significant car, new or old, at the 2012 NAIAS.

Lincoln used the NAIAS to display the recently restored custom speedster that Bob Gregorie designed and built for Edsel Ford. Edsel, who had taken training as an artist and unquestionably had a fine collector’s eye and appreciation for art and design, hired Gregorie to start a styling studio at Ford. Edsel’s father, Henry Ford, couldn’t be bothered with things like aesthetic design, the Model T was all about practicality, not style. As a matter of fact, when Henry found out Edsel had a restyled Model T prototype built while the senior Ford was out of the country, Henry physically attacked and damaged the prototype.

The Speedster was no mere prototype. It was Edsel’s personal sports car that he drove on public streets and raced around the driveways of his estate on Lake St. Claire, just north of Grosse Pointe (it was no coincidence that Edsel built his and Eleanor’s home way across town from Henry’s estate in Dearborn). Eugene T. “Bob” Gregorie had started out working for Brewster, the New York coachbuilder, and later moved to Detroit, working for Harley Earl’s new GM styling department. Edsel hired him away, using him first at Lincoln, which Edsel’s father had bought as his son’s playtoy, and then Gregorie contributed to the design of the Model A, which was essentially a scaled down Lincoln. Gregorie’s styling of an English Ford was scaled up for the 1933-34 American Fords.

Edsel Ford's '32 boat tail speedster.

In the early ’30s, after a trip to the continent Edsel asked Gregorie to design him a speedster with European flair. That resulted in the creation of two boattail speedsters. The car on display at the NAIAS is the second of the two Edsel Ford specials. In an oral history recorded in 1985 by the University of Michigan Dearborn, Gregorie reminisced:

A.       Earlier, Edsel Ford came to me and wanted a special body built on one of the first ’32 V-8 chassis, and I drew up a little boat tail speedster with cycle fenders. A pretty, little thing. We had it built partically in the Engineering Laboratory and over at the Lincoln plant.

Q:      This is Mr. Ford’s personal car?

A:      Edsel Ford’s. Yes, yes, that’s right. Beautiful gun-metal gray, gray leather upholstery, and so on. He kept that out at his estate, and I don’t know what ever happened to the little car. It was a pretty, little car. Have you seen pictures of it?

Q:      Yes, I have.

Q:      Well, we are back in 1932, and you’ve just about…

A:      Yeah, we finished up that little two-seater for Edsel Ford at the Lincoln plant.

Q:      Right. Was this the boat tail?

A:      The little boat tail speedster. That was in the Summer of ’32 we built that and ready for him in the Fall.

Q:      And the boat tail resulted from both your’s and Edsel Ford’s love of boats…?

A:      He was amused by the fact that I drew up the sections of it like you draw the hull of a boat and developed the paneling for it and so on [note: early automotive designers used techniques borrowed from ship builders, including “lofting”, a method of representing three dimensions on paper]. When the car was finished, it wasn’t finished until around the Fall, I know the weather was cold. I drove it back from the Lincoln plant. There was snow. I never saw the car after that. He took it out to his house, and he used to use it out there. But, he made a cute remark at that time. During the Summer of 1932, the Lincoln plant was shut down-­ period! Just the maintenance crew there, and…

Q:      Sales were way down?

A:      Robinson–Robbie, we used to call him–he was the manager of the plant. Robbie and I and two or three of the maintenance men there did most of the work on the car. When the car was finished, Mr. Ford made the comment that it cost $25 to drive a nail there in the plant at that time. He said, “You should see the bill I got for this car.” He said, “You wouldn’t believe it.” Of course, it was all Ford money. It didn’t make any difference, you know, they had the people there. It came out as part of the overhead of the plant, see. Some of those things were interesting when you stop to think of the amount of money that was available to spend, and the way it was spent. I think he felt good about keeping a few people busy, really.

Q:      So the 1933-34 Ford is a success, and you’ve established your rap­port with Mr. Edsel Ford by not only that, but by working on a personal boat tail speedster that he liked.

A:      Yes. Then, in 1934, the Summer of 1934, he had given me the use of the Ford aircraft plant for any experimental work that we wanted to do.

Q:      Which was now vacant?

A:      Yes. They had a skeleton crew there of sheet metal workers and eight or ten top mechanics and whatnot. The reason they were kept on there was to provide service parts for the old Ford Tri-Motor planes of which there quite a number still in service–manifolds and landing gear parts, and things of that nature. It provided a place for me to do some experimental work without interfering with regular Ford activities. That summer discussions about a Ford sports car came up again. Some sort of–this incidentally is really the beginning of the Continental. For all intents and purposes it could be classified that way. I developed a sports car chassis based on the 1934 Ford.

Q:      Which was one of your more beautiful designs, as I recall?

A:      Yes, but it–all that we used from the ’34 Ford was the chassis-­ the chassis frame and the power unit and so on. I developed a special front-end suspension which enabled us to lower the car down five or six inches and also extend the wheelbase about 10 inches. It involved an entirely different front-end suspension, and also we lowered the rear end of it by cutting the rear end of the standard Ford frame off just ahead of the kickup and turning it upside down, welding it together which allowed the frame to go under the axle. It was underslung rear suspen­sion. I built up a chassis based on that concept which I road tested for a couple of months in the surrounding area–with no body work on it. But later, the two front fenders were made from Ford Tri-Motor fenders. The aluminum stampings, which covered the wheels on the Ford Tri-Motor landing gear, we cut them off and pieced them out and made some very nice, extended fenders for the car. So, we finished the car up with some improvisations, and I sent it over to the Lincoln plant, had some nice trim put on it, and had it painted–Mr. Ford’s favorite gun metal gray. Along in January and February, I guess it was, it had to be February, 1935, we talked about the possibility of putting it into production through one of the custom body builders. Well, we’d furnish the chassis, and the custom body builder would provide the body work and finish it up, and it would be sponsored by Ford. I suggested to Mr. Ford that we drive it down to New York and show it to Johnny Inskip.

The second Edsel Ford Speedster with the original front end styling. The brick wall leads me to think that the photo was taken near Greenfield Village or someplace else on the Ford Dearborn campus.

The Edsel Ford Speedster had two iterations. The original 1934 design had a very elegant front end design that featured headlamps integrated into the sheetmetal. At the time, most cars used traditional free standing headlamps (with the notable exception of Pierce Arrow). Unfortunately, the car’s flathead Ford V8 engine overheated, necessitating a 1940 redesign with more open grille space.

Bob Gregorie's scale model of the 1940 restyling. The note is from Edsel Ford to Gregorie, approving of the design but also suggesting a different grille. Edsel wasn't a designer but, like Harley Earl, he had a keen eye and an aesthetic way of giving designers direction.

The result isn’t quite as elegant as the original, and though in photographs it looks a bit awkward, in person (or in 3D) you can see how Gregorie smoothly integrated the new sheet-metal with the rest of the body. It’s still an impressive design that  foreshadows the look of the ’41 and ’42 Fords.

After Edsel’s death in 1943 the Speedster was eventually sold and its whereabouts were not known for four decades until the car resurfaced in 1999. In 2010, the Edsel & Eleanor Ford House (Edsel’s lakeside estate which is owned by a non-profit organization that also now owns Fairlane, Henry and Clara Ford’s Dearborn estate) acquired the Edsel Ford Speedster. It had previously sold at auction in 2008 for $1.76 million.  The catalog description from that auction with a more complete history of the car is reproduced below.  After the acquisition, the Ford House commissioned the restoration division of RM Auctions to do a full restoration of the car to the condition it was in 1940, after Gregorie’s restyling. The Speedster wasn’t in bad shape, having been mechanically restored, but it was painted bright red, apparently for a movie it had appeared in, not Edsel’s favorite Pearl Essence Gunmetal Dark Grey. A more complete gallery of photos of the newly restored Edsel Ford Speedster can be seen here. The restored Speedster had its coming out party at the Pebble Beach concourse last year and after being displayed at events like the NAIAS this year, it will eventually go on permanent display at the Edsel & Eleanor Ford House.

Ronnie Schreiber edits Cars In Depth, a realistic perspective on cars & car culture and the original 3D car site. If you found this post worthwhile, you can dig deeper at Cars In Depth. If the 3D thing freaks you out, don’t worry, all the photo and video players in use at the site have mono options.


From RM Auctions:

120bhp, 239 cu. in. Mercury flathead V8 engine, fitted with twin Stromberg carburetors, three-speed manual transmission, I-beam front axle with semi-elliptic leaf spring, solid rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf spring, four-wheel mechanical brakes. Wheelbase (est.): 122″

Edsel Bryant Ford, President of Ford Motor Company from 1925 until his untimely death from cancer and undulant fever in 1943, had a considerable influence on Ford styling, first with Lincoln, then with the 1928 Model A, and soon afterward, with the 1932 Ford and many Ford models that followed. Edsel oversaw the design of the first Mercury cars and he initiated the concept that became the prototype Lincoln Continental. A true car enthusiast with impeccable taste, Edsel owned a series of interesting automobiles, ranging from Model T speedsters to a Stutz, a Bugatti and a Hispano-Suiza.

An accomplished artist who took art lessons all his life, Edsel had a particular interest in the design and styling of Ford Motor Company cars, an issue that didn’t much interest his puritanical father. In his book, Ford Design Department Concept & Show Cars, 1932-1961, former Ford stylist Jim Farrell wrote: “At a time when others did not recognize it as such, Edsel Ford saw the automobile as an art form. In reality, he was a far better designer than most who claimed the title. He knew design history and theory; he was Ford’s design director in the same sense that Harley Earl was design director at GM.”

Before Edsel’s involvement, Ford’s no-frills styling emanated from the company’s ultra-conservative engineering department. Edsel established Ford’s first styling group and chose E.T. “Bob” Gregorie, to head a small team. Gregorie, who had worked briefly at Harley Earl’s General Motors Art and Colour studio, was an accomplished sketch artist who was adept at translating Edsel’s visions into reality.

“Although Ford had only one-tenth the number of designers employed at GM,” Jim Farrell explained, “the cars designed at Ford during the Edsel Ford years consistently displayed an understated elegance and the sculptured simplicity he insisted on. They have aged well because of him.”

Edsel and Bob Gregorie began their collaboration in 1932. Gregorie had been a draftsman at Lincoln the previous year. Ford design folklore insists that Gregorie made certain that Edsel saw his talented sketches of yachts and speedboats. The two men soon found they worked very well together. Gregorie became adept at visualizing Edsel’s ideas through sketches; he quickly and skillfully translated concepts from two-dimensions-to-three. After Edsel returned from a 1932 European trip, he asked Gregorie to design and supervise the construction of a “sports car” similar to those he’d seen “…on the continent.”

The result, a custom boat tail speedster on a ’32 Ford chassis, was a smart-looking runabout with styling cues that foretold the 1933 Ford production cars, but Edsel soon wanted something more dramatic. Early in 1934, he and Gregorie planned a second, more contemporary speedster with a unique shape that would be much more streamlined. After sketching several alternatives, Gregorie built a 1/25th scale model, which he then tested in a wind tunnel in Ford Aviation’s Air Frame Building.

To achieve this new speedster’s dramatically low silhouette, Gregorie reversed the stock ’34 Ford frame’s rear kick-up and welded it back upside down for a six inch drop, so the frame rails now passed under the rear axle. A combination of existing and newly fabricated, specially-designed suspension parts were used to lower and extend the car’s front end as well. The front axle was moved forward ten inches in order to achieve the extended, elegant proportions Edsel desired.

Next, Gregorie and his Air Frame team fabricated a topless, two-passenger, taper-tailed aluminum body with a sharply vee-ed grille and cut-down doors, mounted on a tubular framework. Modified Ford Tri-motor aircraft “wheel pants” were adapted to serve as cycle fenders. The front fenders turned with the wheels. The speedster’s stock Ford wire wheels were covered by custom wheel discs. Painted Pearl Essence Gunmetal Dark (a gray shade Edsel favored), with a handsome, gray leather interior and an engine-turned instrument panel, the 2,400-pound Speedster was powered by a stock 75 brake horsepower, Ford Model 40 V8 engine, with straight exhausts that ran through a section of the frame, and exited at the rear. Custom bucket seats and a three-spoke steering wheel rounded out the specification.

The design was remarkably well integrated. The canted louvers were stamped to match the precise angle of the grille and the rakish windscreens. A valence panel tapered from front to rear, attached to the alloy body with discreet and perfectly-spaced rivets – another vestige of this car’s aircraft construction.

More custom touches included twin Brooklands racing-style windscreens, a louvered, elegantly shaped alligator hood, low-mounted, faired-in headlights, a fully enclosed radiator with no radiator cap or ornamentation, almost no distracting brightwork and no running boards. These were all styling features that would not appear on production Fords for several years.
According to Jim Farrell, “Mr. Ford took title to the car personally, liked the way it handled and was generally pleased with its design.”

Farrell further notes that Edsel Ford and Bob Gregorie “… spent many of their spare moments discussing the car’s design, and for the first time, both felt they had a car that could be built, somewhat modified, as a new, limited-production, sporty Ford.”

As he had done with his first Speedster, when it was not in use, Edsel stored the trim two-seater in an unheated shed on his Fair Lane estate (rather than incur the wrath of his stern father, who As he had done with his first Speedster, when it was not in use, Edsel stored the trim two-seater in an unheated shed on his Fair Lane estate (rather than incur the wrath of his stern father, who thought that sort of sporty job to be “frivolous”). Unfortunately, a sudden freeze in the winter of 1939-1940 cracked the engine block, so a new 1940 Mercury V8 was installed.

More recently, the Mercury engine was removed and replaced with a new old stock 1940 Ford flathead with a dual carb set up and dual exhausts. This engine was stored in its original packing crate for over 59 years and is in as-new, 1940 condition. The Mercury V8 remains with the Speedster, and will be offered along with the car, although it is in need of a rebuild. A sudden freeze in the winter of 1939-1940 cracked the engine block, so a new 1940 Mercury V8 was installed.

In actual operation, the enclosed sheet metal below the radiator partially blocked the flow of air to the radiator, and the Speedster had a tendency to overheat. To improve its cooling, Gregorie built a 1/10th-sized model that showed the discreet modifications he felt would cure the problem. After Edsel approved the design changes, Gregorie shortened the upper grille on the car, and fabricated a new horizontal lower grille with matching bars, flanked by large headlights.

No top was ever designed for the Speedster, so its stunningly low silhouette remained undisturbed and very seductive. One can only imagine the effect this ‘ahead-of-its-time’ car had on startled onlookers when the adventurous Mr. Ford took it for an occasional spin.

After Edsel Ford died in 1943, the second Model 40 Speedster, one of six cars in his estate, was driven first to Miami, Florida, then to Atlanta, Georgia, where it was sold for $1,000. In 1947, the owner shipped the Speedster to Los Angeles and put it in storage, but it would not remain there for long. In the May 1948 issue of Road & Track, an ad appeared that read: Especially constructed Ford chassis. Aluminum body built for Edsel Ford. Now powered with special Mercury Engine. Priced reasonably at $2,500. COACHCRAFT, LTD, 86 Melrose Ave, Los Angeles, California.

Apparently, the Speedster did not sell. $2,500.00 was a lot of money in 1948. In 1952, the Edsel Speedster appeared in an issue of Auto Sport Review, photographed in Hollywood, along with an aspiring actress named Lynn Bari.

Into storage again it went, emerging in 1957 when it was driven back to Georgia. In January 1958, registered as a 1940 “Ford custom-built speedster,” it was offered for sale on the Garrard Import used car lot in Pensacola, Florida. Not long afterward, the Speedster was purchased by John Pallasch, a US Navy sailor on leave, for the sum of $603.00. Pallasch then drove the car to his home in Deland, Florida.

By now, the much-traveled Speedster was painted red and its upholstery had been modified to matching red leather. Pallasch claimed he could “bury the speedometer at 120 mph.” He reportedly drove the car for a few years before disassembling it in 1960 for an engine rebuild. Several accounts indicate that John’s father, Earl Pallasch, bought the car for his son, and the senior Pallasch reportedly took credit for the purchase, but the present owner confirms John to be the original buyer. John Pallasch shipped out for Vietnam on an extended tour, leaving the Speedster’s engine apart. Upon his return in the late 1960s, it had seized. The car remained apart and in storage for nearly 40 years until a fortuitous event occurred that brought it into the public eye.

In 1999, Bill Warner, founder of the Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance, was searching for the Edsel Speedster for a special display. Warner had read an article in Special Interest Autos magazine written by its editor Mike Lamm, which told the story of all three of Edsel’s unique roadsters, saying that each of the cars had dropped out of sight. The SIA article listed the last owner of the 1934 Edsel Speedster as Earl Pallasch, located in Deland, Florida. After failed attempts to locate an Earl Pallasch, Warner called Mike Lamm, who provided him with the contact information of Earl’s son John, who had inherited the Speedster from his father. Invited to bring the car to Amelia Island, Pallasch replied that it hadn’t run for years, and that he really wanted to sell it.

Recognizing he had stumbled upon a unique opportunity, Bill Warner hitched up a trailer and immediately drove to nearby Deland to investigate. Sitting in the Pallasch garage, dusty and forlorn, covered with junk and tin cans, the long-lost Edsel Ford Speedster was virtually complete except for its custom wheel discs. Incredibly, the car’s odometer read just 19,000 miles.

Warner wrote Pallasch a check on the spot and hauled his miraculous discovery away. “I decided to show the Speedster to Bob Gregorie (who was then 91 and living in Saint Augustine) on the way home,” Bill Warner says, “So I called Mr. Gregorie and asked if I could drop by. I said had something I wanted to show him.”

Bob Gregorie’s response was one of pleasant surprise. “Mr. Gregorie came out of his house, smiled, and ran his hands over the surface of the car.” “I haven’t seen it since 1940,” he said. “The old girl still looks pretty good for her age.”

Bill Warner initially considered doing a ground-up restoration to the Speedster’s first iteration, complete with narrowed V-grille and Pearl Essence Gunmetal finish, but upon consideration, he decided to preserve the car’s remarkable patina. “It was prettier with the front end that was designed in 1934,” Warner said, “but the 1940 grille was original. It would have been a travesty to completely restore it.”

Warner and his team carefully rebuilt the Speedster’s Mercury V8, meticulously touched up the body paint, repainted the fenders, and Al LaMarr replicated the aluminum wheel discs. Bill Warner’s restoration crew removed a set of finned Edelbrock high-compression heads that were on the engine, because they rubbed on the insides of the hood, lending credence to the theory that the Mercury engine was modified (with those heads, twin carburetors, and a racing camshaft) when the car was in Hollywood, not in Dearborn.

Bill Warner believes the car’s red paint was hastily applied when the car was used in a movie. He’s been searching for a copy of that film for years. “They didn’t paint under the hood,” he notes, “and the masking was poorly done, so there’s a little overspray. You can still see the original gray color coming through in some places.”

That said, the well-preserved Speedster remains a time warp, and a truly remarkable find. A few years ago, at the Meadow Brook Hall Concours d’Elegance, Bill Warner kindly allowed this author to drive the Speedster. Respecting the remarkable discovery’s rarity, its well-preserved condition and substantial value, I was reluctant to really get on it, but I was surprised at the car’s peppy acceleration, and enjoyed the visceral rap of the twin, un-muffled exhausts. The gearshift is a three-speed, floor-mounted setup with a handle that extends out from under the dash. The driver’s bucket seat is quite comfortable.

Once inside, one sits low in the narrow cockpit, where the front tires and fenders and can actually be seen as they respond to the changing road surface. The steering is a tad lazy, in a characteristic early Ford V8 way. There’s virtually no cowl shake, and the overall ride, cushioned by the car’s extended wheelbase, is pleasantly firm. The Speedster sits much lower than a typical ’34 Ford roadster, and its long, stylish hood stretches majestically forward like a prestigious, thirties-era classic. Even with its “push and pray” mechanical brakes, Edsel Ford’s custom-built Speedster remains a stylish performance car, just as its patron and creator intended.

Unseen for 40 years, sympathetically cleaned and preserved, and benefiting from a careful mechanical restoration, Edsel Ford’s Continental Series II Speedster, essentially a hand-built and operational concept car from the 1930s, conceived and designed by a pair of acknowledged automotive legends, remains of the most famous and well-documented special Ford cars in existence.

The opportunity to purchase this legendary automobile is unprecedented and unlikely to occur again in our lifetimes.

Edsel Ford’s first 1932 Speedster was sold to a man named Elmer Benzin who kept the car for a time, then resold it to a young designer at General Motors, who subsequently had an accident. The car was badly wrecked, and thought to have been junked and forever lost. In actuality, the damaged Speedster found its way to a body shop in Connecticut. The shop owner, not realizing what he had, customized the boat-tailed speedster and fitted it with modified fenders from a 1935 Chevrolet. Purchased from the bodyman’s widow a few years ago, after having been lost and out of sight for decades, Edsel Ford’s first Continental Speedster is undergoing restoration in North Carolina.

Interestingly, in order to test the new longer chassis, Bob Gregorie and Edsel Ford built a third prototype Continental Special Speedster, with a makeshift open four-seater body. In the winter of February, 1935, with just a flimsy convertible top and no heater fitted, Bob Gregorie bravely drove this one-off car to New York City, but he was unable to secure a production agreement with John Iskip at Brewster & Co. Edsel Ford decided not to try any further to put a Speedster concept into production. He gave the car to Gregorie who kept it for a time, then sold it. The third Speedster passed through subsequent hands, and it was last seen in California in 1952.

The second Edsel Ford Speedster with the original front end styling, most likely photographed at Edsel & Eleanor's estate. Edsel Ford's '32 boat tail speedster. Edsel Ford's '32 boat tail speedster. Bob Gregorie's scale model of the 1940 restyling. The note is from Edsel Ford to Gregorie, approving of the design but also suggesting a different grille. Edsel wasn't a designer but, like Harley Earl, he had a keen eye and an aesthetic way of giving designers direction. Photo Copyright 2012 Cars In Depth. Used with permission. Photo Copyright 2012 Cars In Depth. Used with permission. Photo Copyright 2012 Cars In Depth. Used with permission. Photo Copyright 2012 Cars In Depth. Used with permission.

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Curbside Classic: 1946 Lincoln Continental – The Most Imitated American Car Ever Tue, 07 Dec 2010 16:54:05 +0000 This car is a jaw-dropper, a true classic, and a lucky find that rivals the CC logomobile, but it’s misnamed. By all rights, it should be the Edsel American. It was Edsel Ford’s fine taste and encouragement that made the original version of this trend-setting car happen, and in the process created a car that […]

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This car is a jaw-dropper, a true classic, and a lucky find that rivals the CC logomobile, but it’s misnamed. By all rights, it should be the Edsel American. It was Edsel Ford’s fine taste and encouragement that made the original version of this trend-setting car happen, and in the process created a car that set the template that every American personal luxury coupe/convertible has been trying to measure up to ever since. An aggressive face on a very long hood, a close-coupled body, a short rear deck, and dripping with the aura of exclusivity and sex: a timeless formula. All too few of the endless imitators got the ingredients right, or even close, as our recent Cougar CC so painfully showed. But that didn’t stopped them from trying, just like I never stopped looking for this Continental after I first saw it almost two years ago. It was well worth the effort.

Since the original Continental has a lot of history attached to it, we’re going to step back a bit and put in into context. A more comprehensive background can be found in my Lincoln History Up to 1961, but here’s the semi-condensed version: Unlike his father, Edsel Ford had a very artistic side and was a lover of fine cars. Travel to Europe exposed him to the latest styling trends, and his oversight of Lincoln during the classic era resulted in superbly designed cars.

The Depression essentially ended the era of these expensive toys and also ushered in the aerodynamic era. This resulted in a radical re-thinking of the automotive configuration, with pushed-forward passenger compartments, small pointy hoods and long tapering bodies, sometimes with rear engines. Lincoln adopted John Tjaarda’s radical rear-engined concept, but toned it down and adapted it to use main-stream Ford mechanicals. The resulting 1936 Zephyr (above) was quite successful, because unlike the similarly advanced Chrysler Airflow, it kept at least some semblance of a traditional pointed hood, even if shorter in proportion to the rest of the car than its predecessors.

For sedans, this re-arranging of the automotive real estate was eminently logical for the roomier interiors that resulted. But it really wasn’t so suitable for coupes and convertibles. As handsome as this ’37 Zephyr coupe is, it lacks the raw visceral appeal that the long-hood classic-era cars exuded so powerfully.

Now there were perks along with the endless pains of being Henry Ford’s (only) son. Edsel had commissioned a number of one-off “Specials” and customs since he was sixteen, including three sporty cars that represented his vision of sophistication and latest European trends. All three of them were thus dubbed “Continental”. He came up with the basic concept and certain details of these cars, and handed them over to Bob Gregoire to make the renderings that resulted in the hand-made final results.

In late 1938, Gregoire drafted the latest of the series (he claimed in thirty-five minutes) with input from Edsel, and the resulting car was shipped the following March to its happy new owner in Florida, where the Fords spent much of the winter.  The 1939 Continental was built on the Zephyr chassis, but the passenger compartment was now well set back (again) resulting in that long hood, and the whole body was lowered and the side-boards completely eliminated (sectioned and channeled). It was a superb reconciliation of the traditional with the streamlined trends, and an instant classic. And the exposed spare on the rear quickly became known as the Continental Spare, an affectation that still haunts us today.

Ironically, our featured car lacks the eponymous spare, and its owner may even go so far as to customize the rear end to eliminate any lingering clues to its disappearance. Now that’s a gutsy move, and one I can respect. A Lincoln American indeed, if not an Edsel.

Edsel was bombarded with open check books as he drove his new toy around Palm Beach (one per mile, he claimed), so he called back to Dearborn and ordered the Continental to go into production. As it was essentially a hand built car, only some four hundred were produced in 1940. The first one was given to Mickey Rooney, which quickly had the rest of Hollywood fighting to be seen in one. Like most successful halo cars, its impact was way beyond the sheer revenue numbers.

After a brief two-year run, the Continental hibernated through the war, and re-emerged in 1946 with a drastically re-styled front end. I will admit to generally preferring the original’s more delicate prow, but ironically perhaps, the ’46-’48 Continental’s much heavier and bolder front end actually completes the enduring formula that would be copied so prolifically.

The restyle is also the equivalent of a sex change operation: the original is a delicate, graceful and feminine car, none of which comes to mind when confronted with this butch bomb. So strictly speaking, the Continental was aptly named for its first edition, but what reappeared after the war was utterly all-American. Understandably so, since the swagger in America’s psyche after WWII was all-too obvious.

Perhaps that also helps explain why the ’46 Conti has been the object of endless replication; it so utterly embodies the self-confidence and all-time high national testosterone levels that winning the biggest war ever induced. No wonder there was such a huge Baby Boom. And no wonder older guys were the primary target for its off-shoots. And (again) no wonder that the peak years for the personal luxury coupe market was during the seventies and eighties. Our war heroes were hitting middle age, and Viagra hadn’t been invented yet. But instead of buying a Mark IV, they should have gone out an hunted up the real thing instead, because this car is guaranteed to get your sperm count up.

I say this from experience (no, not my own). In 1973, I had an evil landlord in Iowa City. Henry Black was his name, and he would trade rent for slave labor from his starving student tenants during the summer to build additions and whole houses to his ramshackle slum called Black’s Gaslight Village. He was a big, heavy-set ornery old cuss, and walked with a cane (which he also treated as a weapon), and must have been well into his seventies. And he kept a quite young and attractive wife under virtual-house arrest in his big old Victorian. We only ever got peeps of her through the front door when we paid the rent; he never let her go anywhere, especially in his only car, a mean black ’46-’48 Continental coupe just like this one. Maybe he was worried about all the young male students. It was all like some Gothic novel.

I worked for him one summer building a cottage for future student tenants out of old railroad ties, creosote smell and all (this was before students financed their lifestyle, spring breaks in Mexico and summers in Africa with endless student loans). It was also before building permits were mandatory. Anyway, I vividly remember  riding with him in his musty old Continental to the hardware store, where he’d wait outside. Being twenty at the time, it was a bit hard to imagine, but old Henry Black was still fathering little kids with his locked away bride (unless students were sneaking in). The kids actually got to come out once in a while.

If I’ve digressed inappropriately (again), sorry; but the memories of hearing the flathead V12 in Henry’s car cough to life and his ivory-handled cane sliding against me in the curves are irrepressible after being exposed to this beast today. But if you’re wondering why there’s no engine shots, it’s because the troublesome Zephyr V12 is long gone; a healthy sounding Chevy small block does the burbling instead. And it may well not be the first transplanted engine either; the twelve had such a bad rep folks were tearing them out back in the late forties already and replacing it with the flathead Lincoln V8 that succeeded it.

The Zephyr was not an expensive car, so Ford had his engineers cobble up a budget twelve that was not much more than the Ford V8 and a half. But undersized water passages exacerbated the flathead’s intrinsic thermal issues, and as a result bores warped, rings wore out, oil burned and didn’t get properly circulated for other reasons as well. It only made some 120 hp from its 292 cubes, so performance was none too impressive in the 4,000 lb Continental, even when it ran properly. Admittedly, the post war engines had many of their ailments fixed, but the bad rep stuck.

I first ran into this car on the street a year and a half ago, and almost had an accident (in my pants). It’s not like I was expecting to find an original Continental at all, but then this comes burbling down the street. I caught up to the driver at a light, but he was in too much of a hurry to stop for photos. And I’ve been lusting for it ever since. Well, good things sometimes happens to those that lust hard enough, and I finally caught up with it again on a rare sunny December day here. Drew, its owner, bought it a couple of years back, and is still mulling over its future. A chopped top maybe?

Or maybe not; Drew is tall like me, and the Conti is none too roomy already. This is definitely a “personal” coupe, and not nearly as big, at least on the inside, as one might expect. But whatever direction he takes it, I’m sure it will serve him well, even into old age, should he feel the desire or need to keep it that long.

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