The Truth About Cars » Tesla http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com The Truth About Cars is dedicated to providing candid, unbiased automobile reviews and the latest in auto industry news. Thu, 30 Oct 2014 21:19:32 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.0 The Truth About Cars is dedicated to providing candid, unbiased automobile reviews and the latest in auto industry news. The Truth About Cars no The Truth About Cars editors@ttac.com editors@ttac.com (The Truth About Cars) 2006-2009 The Truth About Cars The Truth About Cars is dedicated to providing candid, unbiased automobile reviews and the latest in auto industry news. The Truth About Cars » Tesla http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/wp-content/themes/ttac-theme/images/logo.gif http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/category/reviews/tesla/ Sovereign Subsidies Fuel Norwegian Tesla Registrations http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/sovereign-subsidies-fuel-norwegian-tesla-registrations/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/sovereign-subsidies-fuel-norwegian-tesla-registrations/#comments Wed, 29 Oct 2014 11:00:11 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=937762 Not too long ago, Tesla set up shop in Norway, looking to gain some market share in the frosty nation of 5 million. Little did anyone know just how big the share would grow. According to Freakonomics, Norway is the second largest market for the premium EV automaker, with March 2014 being the best month […]

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Not too long ago, Tesla set up shop in Norway, looking to gain some market share in the frosty nation of 5 million.

Little did anyone know just how big the share would grow.

According to Freakonomics, Norway is the second largest market for the premium EV automaker, with March 2014 being the best month in Model S orders thus far. However, not only was it the best month for Tesla, it was the best month for breaking a record: 1,493 units registered, the most units ever recorded with Norwegian authorities in one month since Ford moved 1,454 Sierras in May of 1986.

Through the first nine months of 2014, the automaker averaged 435 regisrations per month, despite the price for a new Model S beginning at kr461,000 (~$68,000 USD); never mind how much a used Model S goes for up there.

How is this possible? Subsidies and incentives so huge it would make the Japanese government blush. Those subsidies help bring the price down to levels found among gasoline-powered vehicles, and are fueled, ironically, by a sovereign wealth fund created from Norway’s massive oil reserves. The fund was created to future-proof the nation from “Dutch Disease”: Over-specialization in the production and export of natural resources at the expense of every other industry in a given country.

Alas, those subsidies won’t last long: Only the first 50,000 registrations will enjoy the perks of pushing a green future.

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Tesla, US Bank Team For New Model S Lease Contract http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-us-bank-team-new-model-s-lease-contract/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-us-bank-team-new-model-s-lease-contract/#comments Wed, 29 Oct 2014 10:00:45 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=937714 Want to own a Model S without worrying about a long-term commitment or how much it’ll hurt your bottom line? CEO Elon Musk has a deal for you. Reuters reports U.S. Bank will offer a lease with a 25 percent decrease in the amount paid per month. Per Musk, the bank was chosen due to […]

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Black Tesla Model S

Want to own a Model S without worrying about a long-term commitment or how much it’ll hurt your bottom line? CEO Elon Musk has a deal for you.

Reuters reports U.S. Bank will offer a lease with a 25 percent decrease in the amount paid per month. Per Musk, the bank was chosen due to having a “much lower cost of capital” than Tesla itself. As in previous leases, the lessee only needs to tap once on the vehicle’s touchscreen to agree the terms and conditions of the contract.

In addition to paying less per month a new Model S, Tesla will also offer its Happiness Guarantee to lessees who sign-on. The guarantee allows the lessee to return their vehicle to the automaker within three months if they find anything wrong with the product. However, Musk cautioned that if they wanted a new vehicle right away, they would need to wait a while. Lessees can also upgrade to a newer model after paying a pass-through fee.

U.S. Bank was chosen last year alongside Wells Fargo to enter into a partnership with the automaker to offer potential owners a 10 percent down payment on a new Model S purchase.

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Minnesotan Tesla Owners Offer Test Drives To Potential Customers In Iowa http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/minnesotan-tesla-owners-offer-test-drives-potential-customers-iowa/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/minnesotan-tesla-owners-offer-test-drives-potential-customers-iowa/#comments Tue, 28 Oct 2014 13:00:11 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=936938 Iowa may be one of the few states where Tesla itself can’t directly sell its vehicles to the public, but it doesn’t mean owners can’t at least promote the California automaker to potential customers. KCCI-TV in Des Moines reports a group of Minnesotan Tesla owners drove to a local supermarket in Urbandale last weekend to […]

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Iowa Tesla Model S

Iowa may be one of the few states where Tesla itself can’t directly sell its vehicles to the public, but it doesn’t mean owners can’t at least promote the California automaker to potential customers.

KCCI-TV in Des Moines reports a group of Minnesotan Tesla owners drove to a local supermarket in Urbandale last weekend to give Iowans the opportunity to see the Model S first-hand.

One owner stated that the group aren’t fighting against the ban, but are about “sharing new technology” up-close with those who might otherwise view the vehicles from afar.

The group also gave test drives to would-be owners, something that the state’s government has also prohibited Tesla from conducting on its own.

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Consumer Reports: Infotainment System Woes Mark 2014 Reliability Survey http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/consumer-reports-infotainment-system-woes-mark-2014-reliability-survey/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/consumer-reports-infotainment-system-woes-mark-2014-reliability-survey/#comments Tue, 28 Oct 2014 10:00:36 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=936826 Consumer Reports released its Annual Reliability Survey for this year, focusing some of the attention on the woes experienced by a handful of infotainment systems. According to the publication, the absolute worse of the pack in 2014 was Infiniti’s InTouch system in the new Q50, with over one in five owners wanting to take a […]

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Infiniti InTouch - Infiniti Q50

Consumer Reports released its Annual Reliability Survey for this year, focusing some of the attention on the woes experienced by a handful of infotainment systems.

According to the publication, the absolute worse of the pack in 2014 was Infiniti’s InTouch system in the new Q50, with over one in five owners wanting to take a crowbar to the whole thing. The brand itself took a beating, dropping 14 points to 20th out of 28 as a result of the Q50’s issues, as well as the overall reliability issues in the QX60. Other infotainment systems ironing out the bugs included Ford’s MyTouch, Honda’s HondaLink and Fiat Chrysler Automobile’s UConnect.

Concerning overall reliability, Lexus once again took the top of the podium, while Toyota and Mazda respectively brought home silver and bronze, and Honda finished in fourth. Buick, meanwhile, was the only brand among the Detroit Three to place in the top 10, jumping from 16th to sixth on the strength of its entire portfolio.

As for why the other Detroit brands failed to reach the top 10, Consumer Reports says domestic small and compact cars, along with full-size trucks, are holding everyone back. Tesla also didn’t make the list, but that was due to criteria than low quality: the publication only rates brands with a minimum of two models, a situation that will be remedied when the Model X rolls out next year.

Finally, Audi took fifth behind the Japanese makes, while Porsche took ninth ahead of Kia. BMW and Volvo remained within the top 20. Only Mercedes-Benz took a hit among the Europeans this year, falling 11 spots to 24th thanks to the new CLA and S classes.

The Consumer Reports 2014 reliability survey obtained its information from 1.1 million vehicles, the largest survey of its kind in the publication’s history.

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Toyota Sells Some Of Its Stake In Tesla http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/toyota-sells-stake-tesla/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/toyota-sells-stake-tesla/#comments Mon, 27 Oct 2014 11:00:51 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=935994 Daimler wasn’t the only to sell its Tesla shares last week, as Toyota has done the same with some of its shares in the company. Bloomberg reports the automaker sold part of its 2.4 percent stake in the company Friday, though no details were given as to how much of the $690 million ROI was […]

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2013 Toyota RAV4 EV, Exterior, Photography Courtesy of Alex L. Dykes

Daimler wasn’t the only to sell its Tesla shares last week, as Toyota has done the same with some of its shares in the company.

Bloomberg reports the automaker sold part of its 2.4 percent stake in the company Friday, though no details were given as to how much of the $690 million ROI was brought back into its coffers. The sale follows Daimler’s full divestment from the company, where it turned over its 4 percent stake for $780 million.

Toyota and Tesla are also winding down their RAV4 EV program before going their separate ways, where the latter supplied battery packs for the former’s 2,600 electrified crossovers over the past three years.

Though the two differ on what future they see — Toyota prefers hydrogen, Tesla opts for more electricity — Toyota representative Kayo Doi says her employer has “a good relationship” with Tesla, “and will evaluate the feasibility of working together on future projects.”

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Gilbert Calls Out Dealers In Wake Of Reinforced Michigan Direct Sales Ban http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/gilbert-calls-dealers-wake-reinforced-michigan-direct-sales-ban/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/gilbert-calls-dealers-wake-reinforced-michigan-direct-sales-ban/#comments Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:00:28 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=935370 Tuesday, Michigan governor Rick Snyder signed into law a bill that included language reinforcing a direct sales ban established over 30 years ago. Wednesday? Detroit billionaire Dan Gilbert — best known as the majority owner of the Cleveland Cavaliers who penned a letter in Comic Sans typeface in response to LeBron James making the decision […]

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Tuesday, Michigan governor Rick Snyder signed into law a bill that included language reinforcing a direct sales ban established over 30 years ago.

Wednesday? Detroit billionaire Dan Gilbert — best known as the majority owner of the Cleveland Cavaliers who penned a letter in Comic Sans typeface in response to LeBron James making the decision to play for the Miami Heat — had a few words to say about this decision.

According to Detroit Free Press, Gilbert was interviewing fellow NBA team owner Mark Cuban while guest-hosting an episode of CNBC’s “Squawk Box” when he brought up the signing of HB 5606, now known as Michigan Public Act 354 of 2014, proclaiming the move “sends a bad message” as far as how much influence lobbyists — especially the auto dealer lobby — have over legislators. He added that Michigan dealers should “man up” and compete with Tesla instead of forcing the EV automaker to sell through a franchise network.

Morgan Stanley automotive analyst Adam Jonas agreed with Gilbert in a note to the financial giant’s clients, stating it was only “a matter of time” that the issue of direct sales — and Tesla’s link to them — would “likely mushroom into a national issue.” He also said legislation protecting the status quo “exist to support the weakest link in the network.”

On the other side, Detroit Regional Chamber of Commerce president Sandy Baruah believes Detroit “should have a business environment where all participants play by a common set of rules.” The chamber also supported the signing, and says it looks forward to the further examination Snyder called for in light of the reinforcement.

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Nissan, Tesla Sold Most California ZEV Credits In 2013 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/nissan-tesla-sold-california-zev-credits-2013/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/nissan-tesla-sold-california-zev-credits-2013/#comments Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:00:13 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=935346 In one corner of the California ZEV credit octagon, the Tesla and its air of luxury. On the other side, the Nissan and its down-to-earth vibe. Who won this year? Nissan. AutoblogGreen reports the Japanese automaker sold more ZEV credits than the Californians, though not by much: 663.6 to 650.195. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles pulled up […]

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In one corner of the California ZEV credit octagon, the Tesla and its air of luxury. On the other side, the Nissan and its down-to-earth vibe.

Who won this year? Nissan.

AutoblogGreen reports the Japanese automaker sold more ZEV credits than the Californians, though not by much: 663.6 to 650.195. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles pulled up at a distant third with 235.2 sold, thanks to the existence of the Fiat 500e.

As for who bought them — purchase price per credit is permanently shrouded in secrecy — Mercedes likely took Nissan’s credits for the former’s less green offerings, Honda following behind with 542.5 purchased. FCA, again, placed third with 237.8, cancelling out what the 500e gained.

Finally, California residents brought home 3.5 million vehicles during the period ending last month, with 38,000 EVs, 30,000 PHEVs and 570,000 hybrids roaming the streets and highways.

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Daimler Financially Divests From Tesla, BMW Could Step In http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/daimler-financially-divests-tesla-bmw-step/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/daimler-financially-divests-tesla-bmw-step/#comments Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:00:59 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=935314 Over five years ago, Daimler AG acquired a 9.1 percent interest in Tesla, gaining 1,000 battery packs for its Smart EV in exchange for helping to put the Model S on the road to production. Wednesday, Daimler sold its remaining 4 percent in the company, netting $780 million for the trouble. Despite the divestiture, both […]

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Mercedes-Benz B-Klasse Electric Drive – Laden / Mercedes-Benz

Over five years ago, Daimler AG acquired a 9.1 percent interest in Tesla, gaining 1,000 battery packs for its Smart EV in exchange for helping to put the Model S on the road to production.

Wednesday, Daimler sold its remaining 4 percent in the company, netting $780 million for the trouble.

Despite the divestiture, both automakers will continue cooperating on ongoing projects, such as the Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive recently launched in the United States. Daimler financial management board member Bodo Uebber said the sale would allow Tesla to “broaden its investor base,” adding that stock ownership wasn’t necessary to the overall relationship between the two companies.

As for who Tesla could now court, Forbes believes BMW could be drawn further into its own relationship with the company. International Strategy & Investment analyst Arndt Ellinghorst believes Tesla would benefit more from BMW’s carbon-fiber technology — put to great use in the i Series — than from providing batteries to Mercedes. Both companies met in June to discuss standardization for a potential EV charging network.

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Tesla Direct Sales Ban Reinforced In Michigan, GM Supported Signing http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-direct-sales-ban-reinforced-michigan-gm-supported-signing/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-direct-sales-ban-reinforced-michigan-gm-supported-signing/#comments Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:00:19 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=934698 It’s official: the ban preventing Tesla from directly selling its wares to customers in Michigan has been reinforced. Michigan governor Rick Snyder signed into law HB 5606, now known as Public Act 354 of 2014. The act not only prohibits automakers from telling their dealerships what fees the latter can charge customers, but reinforces a […]

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2013 Tesla Model S Summerside Lighthouse

It’s official: the ban preventing Tesla from directly selling its wares to customers in Michigan has been reinforced.

Michigan governor Rick Snyder signed into law HB 5606, now known as Public Act 354 of 2014. The act not only prohibits automakers from telling their dealerships what fees the latter can charge customers, but reinforces a law already on the books:

This bill does not, as some have claimed, prevent auto manufacturers from selling automobiles directly to consumers at retail in Michigan — because this is already prohibited under Michigan law.

Though Tesla can do little more than open a showroom and a repair shop for now, Snyder said lawmakers should “always be willing to re-examine” legislation with the aim of improving the consumer’s experience “in a more efficient and less costly manner.”

Meanwhile, at least one automaker is happy PA 354 is on the books. In a one-sentence press release, General Motors had this to say prior to the bill’s signing:

We believe that House Bill 5606 will help ensure that all automotive manufacturers follow the same rules to operate in the State of Michigan; therefore, we encourage Governor Snyder to sign it.

Per Jalopnik, GM sent a similar message to Ohio governor John Kasich back in March of this year regarding SB137, which would have allowed Tesla to directly sell to customers in the state; the bill later died in the Ohio Senate.

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Tesla’s First Battery Swap Station Opening Soon http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/teslas-first-battery-swap-station-opening-soon/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/teslas-first-battery-swap-station-opening-soon/#comments Fri, 17 Oct 2014 13:00:18 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=932362 While Tesla owners — and owners of all EVs, for that matter — may be waiting a couple of years before titanium oxide anodes bring battery charging levels down to the 3- to 5-minute fueling times found at a given gas station, CEO Elon Musk has another option for them to consider: Battery-pack swapping. SlashGear […]

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Tesla Supercharger

While Tesla owners — and owners of all EVs, for that matter — may be waiting a couple of years before titanium oxide anodes bring battery charging levels down to the 3- to 5-minute fueling times found at a given gas station, CEO Elon Musk has another option for them to consider: Battery-pack swapping.

SlashGear reports the first swapping station will come online within the next few months, offering S and X owners the option of allowing robots to swap a drained pack for a fully charged unit from underneath the car within 90 seconds. Not only is this method faster than refueling at the local ARCO, but it blows away the Supercharger’s 30-minute charging time, as well.

The pack swap would also enable owners to retrieve their original packs later on, or, should retrieval become inconvenient, pay the difference for the new pack. Critics note this could lead to supply problems, where some stations have batteries waiting for their owners to return, while others run short of new packs.

The first station will open somewhere between Los Angeles and San Francisco, though further details were scant.

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Michigan May Ban Tesla Direct Sales Pending Governor’s Signature http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/michigan-may-ban-tesla-direct-sales-pending-governors-signature/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/michigan-may-ban-tesla-direct-sales-pending-governors-signature/#comments Thu, 16 Oct 2014 12:00:00 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=931978 Sitting on Michigan governor Rick Snyder’s desk is a bill that would add the state to the list of places where Tesla cannot sell its vehicles directly to the public, waiting for his pen to seal the deal. Automotive News reports Michigan H.B. 5606 was originally meant to determine whether or not automakers could stop […]

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Sitting on Michigan governor Rick Snyder’s desk is a bill that would add the state to the list of places where Tesla cannot sell its vehicles directly to the public, waiting for his pen to seal the deal.

Automotive News reports Michigan H.B. 5606 was originally meant to determine whether or not automakers could stop their dealership networks from charging consumers certain fees when it was introduced in May, only for the anti-Tesla language to be appended to the bill by the state senate prior to passage — and without notice or debate — during the first two days of October. The bill then returned to the state house, passing 106 to 1 before landing on Snyder’s desk.

On the third day, Tesla contacted the governor’s office to have “a very open and productive dialogue” with those in the Snyder administration, according to vice president of business development Diarmuid O’Connell. He added that the automaker had been watching the bill since its introduction, citing its experience with other bills where anti-Tesla language had been stealthily implemented.

Meanwhile, Michigan Automobile Dealers Association executive vice president Terry Burns applauded the bill, proclaiming that while Tesla are “more than welcome” to do business in Michigan, he would hope they do so based on state law:

One good thing about being governor, you get to do whatever you think is appropriate at the time. We hope and look forward to him signing the bill and clarifying the language, and we hope he does it soon.

As for when the governor would decide the fate of H.B. 5606, a representative said the bill was being evaluated, but nothing has been decided thus far. Snyder has until October 21 to sign.

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Panasonic Investing “Tens Of Billions” Of Yen In Tesla Gigafactory http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/panasonic-investing-tens-billions-yen-tesla-gigafactory/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/panasonic-investing-tens-billions-yen-tesla-gigafactory/#comments Mon, 13 Oct 2014 13:00:57 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=930306 Just how much will Panasonic throw down on the table when it comes time to invest in Tesla’s new Gigafactory near Reno, Nev.? According to CEO Kazuhiro Tsuga, “tens of billions” of yen. Reuters reports Tsuga didn’t think the current exchange rate — which knocks his investment quote down to tens, if not hundreds, of […]

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Super GT Panasonic Toyota Prius

Just how much will Panasonic throw down on the table when it comes time to invest in Tesla’s new Gigafactory near Reno, Nev.? According to CEO Kazuhiro Tsuga, “tens of billions” of yen.

Reuters reports Tsuga didn’t think the current exchange rate — which knocks his investment quote down to tens, if not hundreds, of millions of dollars — was “bad,” so long as the exchange remained stable.

As reported earlier this year, Panasonic wants the Gigafactory all to itself, investing in all levels of production at the upcoming plant. The battery producer also agreed to manufacture lithium ion cells for Tesla’s and other manufacturers’ battery packs as part of the overall investment deal.

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Tesla: The “D” Stands For Dual-Motor http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-d-stands-dual-motor/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-d-stands-dual-motor/#comments Fri, 10 Oct 2014 10:00:10 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=928330 You’ve waited for this, now here it comes: Tesla is dropping in a second electric motor up front for more power and better weight distribution in the Model S. Its name? D. Road & Track reports all three dual-motor models of the S — 60D, 85D and P85D — will have a 118-horsepower mid-size electric […]

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Tesla P85D Backside

You’ve waited for this, now here it comes: Tesla is dropping in a second electric motor up front for more power and better weight distribution in the Model S.

Its name? D.

Road & Track reports all three dual-motor models of the S — 60D, 85D and P85D — will have a 118-horsepower mid-size electric motor powering the front wheels. The same motor will also move the rear pair in the 60D and 85D, while customers who opt for the raw power of the P85D will have the same 470-horsepower motor in the back as the original P85.

The power duo under the P85D will deliver a combined 690 horsepower and 687 lb-ft of torque when the hammer is dropped, moving from nil to 60 in 3.2 seconds — spanking Charger Hellcats and Panameras off the line — with the quarter disappearing in 11.8 seconds. CEO Elon Musk stated his team benchmarked the McLaren F1 for the top-end model’s acceleration performance.

As for range, the 85D will pull into the Supercharger after 295 miles, five short of the magical 300-mile barrier. The 60D will do the same after 225 miles, and the P85D arrives after 275 miles.

Aside from the new models — all of which are available for order at this moment, with delivery set for December for P85D models, February for the others — the Model S and future vehicles will have Autopilot, a semi-autonomous drive system that will take over from the driver when needed, doing everything from speeding up and slowing down in heavy traffic, to switching lanes after the driver signals where they wish to go. The system — which is in every Model S assembled from two weeks ago forward, and will be enabled via software update in the next few months — uses a forward-facing camera and an array of 12 sensors, providing a 360-degree view of the world up to 16 feet away.

Finally, stopping all of this new power comes from an electromechanical braking setup — the Porsche 918 is the only other vehicle to use the technology — which Autopilot can engage in whatever manner is most appropriate in a given situation, from hard panic stops to red-carpet style gentle braking. Tesla can fine-tune the system for desired brake feel, as well.

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Tesla Preparing To Enter CPO Market By 2016 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-preparing-enter-cpo-market-2016/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/10/tesla-preparing-enter-cpo-market-2016/#comments Tue, 07 Oct 2014 13:00:49 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=927409 Always wanted to own a Tesla Model S, but couldn’t get past the $71,070 base price? CEO Elon Musk has a plan to make it easier to bring one home: CPO sales. Automotive News reports the automaker is working on a certified pre-owned program that would be offered through its stores, competing against similar programs […]

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Always wanted to own a Tesla Model S, but couldn’t get past the $71,070 base price? CEO Elon Musk has a plan to make it easier to bring one home: CPO sales.

Automotive News reports the automaker is working on a certified pre-owned program that would be offered through its stores, competing against similar programs by the likes of BMW and Mercedes-Benz, as explained by Tesla’s vice president of communications, Simon Sproule:

With the Model S fleet now heading toward the first cars hitting three years old, we are looking at CPO and how best to structure.

In addition, Musk himself proclaimed in 2013 that he would personally honor the buyback guarantee his company issued to owners at the time of purchase, allowing them to recover 43 percent to 50 percent of the sticker price after three years. Should this group take him up, the first trade-ins would arrive for refurbishing in the spring of 2016 — if not earlier for those offloading their Model S for a Model X — with more to come the following year.

Just like with Tesla’s new cars, the CPO models would be sold at its stores, with the potential to capture as much as $10,000 per used model sold, much more than when the models first left the showroom according to TrueCar president John Krafcik.

Challenges for the company’s entry into the CPO market include: budgeting for model refurbishing and sales; more legal battles to be allowed to directly sell used models; the potential for depreciation to be lower than benchmarked — the Mercedes S-Class’ trade-in value formed the basis for Tesla’s buyback program; owners taking their vehicles to other used-car dealers or the private market; and the upcoming Model III.

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Goldman Sachs: Tesla Needs $6B In Capital To Meet “Disruptive” Growth http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/goldman-sachs-tesla-needs-6b-capital-meet-disruptive-growth/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/goldman-sachs-tesla-needs-6b-capital-meet-disruptive-growth/#comments Thu, 25 Sep 2014 10:00:40 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=918314 According to the financial overlords of Goldman Sachs, Tesla would need an $6 billion in capital within the next 11 years should its products become truly disruptive to the automotive industry. Per Bloomberg, Goldman Sachs analyst Patrick Archambault delivered that number to his employer’s clients Wednesday, based on what he believes would be needed should […]

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Tesla HQ

According to the financial overlords of Goldman Sachs, Tesla would need an $6 billion in capital within the next 11 years should its products become truly disruptive to the automotive industry.

Per Bloomberg, Goldman Sachs analyst Patrick Archambault delivered that number to his employer’s clients Wednesday, based on what he believes would be needed should Tesla’s electric lineup prove as popular as the iPhone 6 or Model T. The proclamation knocked the automaker’s shares down 1.7 percent to $259.32 on the trading floor in New York at the final bell.

Though Tesla CEO Elon Musk plans to sell a minimum of 500,000 units per year down the road, Archambault claims the capital needed would push annual production from 1.8 million to 3.2 million units by 2025. Other projects, such as the upcoming Gigafactory battery pack plant in Reno, Nev., would also need some of the projected $6 billion in additional capital. He adds that most of the $6 billion would be distributed from 2017 through 2025.

Meanwhile, Tesla has not given its own forecast for capital spending, according to representative Simon Sproule.

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Report: Gigafactory Battery Cost As Low As $165/kWh By 2025 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/report-gigafactory-battery-cost-low-165kwh-2025/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/report-gigafactory-battery-cost-low-165kwh-2025/#comments Tue, 23 Sep 2014 11:00:43 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=916850 One of the main goals of Tesla’s Gigafactory is to bring down battery pack costs to just under $100 per kilowatt-hour within 10 years. That goal may be harder to achieve, however, according to one skeptic. Charged Electric Vehicles reports Dr. Menahem Anderman of Advanaced Automotive Batteries recently released a report (one that few, especially […]

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gigafactory-aerial-1

One of the main goals of Tesla’s Gigafactory is to bring down battery pack costs to just under $100 per kilowatt-hour within 10 years. That goal may be harder to achieve, however, according to one skeptic.

Charged Electric Vehicles reports Dr. Menahem Anderman of Advanaced Automotive Batteries recently released a report (one that few, especially TTAC, are willing to pay $2,800 to read in full) about Tesla’s battery tech and its role in the grand scheme of electrification.

In particular, Anderman expresses his doubts that Tesla can actually bring down pack costs to below $100/kWh before 2025:

Our assessment shows that pack pricing for the 2025 time scale could be as low as $167/kWh… Pack cost much below $200/kWh is unlikely before 2020.

Further, he doesn’t believe the automaker can also bring a $35,000 EV to market by 2017, proclaiming the upcoming Model 3’s price tag “will be in the range of $50k-80k,” and that the Gigafactory’s use of solar power is “mostly for image and political reasons.”

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Tesla Appeals NJ Franchise Statute, May Win Via Legislation http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-appeals-nj-franchise-statute-may-win-via-legislation/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-appeals-nj-franchise-statute-may-win-via-legislation/#comments Fri, 19 Sep 2014 11:00:38 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=915130 Months after the New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission forced Tesla to stop directly selling its vehicles to the public, the automaker’s appeal moves closer to its day in court. Automotive News reports the appeal, made in March of 2014, proclaims that Tesla has a right to sell its cars with its business model, as the […]

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Tesla Model S Burnout

Months after the New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission forced Tesla to stop directly selling its vehicles to the public, the automaker’s appeal moves closer to its day in court.

Automotive News reports the appeal, made in March of 2014, proclaims that Tesla has a right to sell its cars with its business model, as the state’s franchise statute does not apply to the automaker — no franchise agreements were ever made — the MVC overstepped its bounds by enforcing the statute, and the statute itself violates the state’s constitution in part.

That said, the case may not need to see the light of day, as two bills in the state senate would allow Tesla to continue doing business its way, with some limits. The first would give the automaker four stores to itself — two of which are already in operation — with any more to be franchised. Two service facilities would also be required of Tesla were the bill to pass. The second bill would update the franchise statute.

Both bills are expected to be voted upon by late September at the earliest.

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Nevada Governor Signs Tesla Tax Package Into Law http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/nevada-governor-signs-tesla-tax-package-law/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/nevada-governor-signs-tesla-tax-package-law/#comments Mon, 15 Sep 2014 11:00:27 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=912674 A week after the announcement, and through two days of deliberation by the state legislature, Nevada governor Brian Sandoval signed into law September 11 the $1.25 billion tax package that won over Tesla enough to bring its Gigafactory to the Silver State. Reno Gazette-Journal breaks down the complete package as follows: $725 million: 20-year, 100 […]

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Elon Musk and Brian Sandoval

A week after the announcement, and through two days of deliberation by the state legislature, Nevada governor Brian Sandoval signed into law September 11 the $1.25 billion tax package that won over Tesla enough to bring its Gigafactory to the Silver State.

Reno Gazette-Journal breaks down the complete package as follows:

  • $725 million: 20-year, 100 percent sales tax abatement
  • $332 million: 10-year, 100 percent property tax abatement
  • $120 million: Transferable tax credits
  • $75 million: $12,500/job transferable tax credits (up to 6,000 jobs)
  • $27 million: 10-year, 100 percent modified business tax abatement
  • $8 million: Discounted electricity rates for eight years

In addition, the state will buy Tahoe Reno Industrial Center’s main road, the USA Parkway, for $43 million, and will extend the road to U.S. Highway 50 at a cost yet to be determined.

Finally, the legislature had to agree to give Tesla and other EV manufacturers the right to directly sell their wares to customers in Nevada without going through the traditional dealership model.

In exchange, Tesla will provide $7.5 million annually to the state for education funding over the next five years beginning in 2018, as well as invest $3.5 billion in manufacturing equipment and real estate in Nevada.

Meanwhile, the insurance and film industries lost on their respective tax incentive programs as funds were siphoned into the Tesla deal. The former loses a $27 million/year credit that had been a mainstay for 40 years; the latter sees a hard-won $80 million/year credit meant for movie production over the next four years reduced to just $10 million/year.

As for economic impact, the state expects $100 billion over the next two decades, ranging from 6,500 employees making $25/hour assembling the battery packs meant for all of Tesla’s vehicles and others interested in them, to a 4 percent increase in the state’s gross domestic product.

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Tesla Model X Has 20,000 Reservations, More To Come http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-model-x-20000-reservations-come/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-model-x-20000-reservations-come/#comments Fri, 12 Sep 2014 11:00:13 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=911057 Despite attempts to discourage would-be owners from reserving a copy of the upcoming Model X, Tesla has some 20,000 customers on its waiting list for the gullwinged SUEV. Gas 2 reports a total of 20,159 reservations have been made thus far since 2012, 12,000 of which were made through March of this year. Out of […]

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SONY DSC

Despite attempts to discourage would-be owners from reserving a copy of the upcoming Model X, Tesla has some 20,000 customers on its waiting list for the gullwinged SUEV.

Gas 2 reports a total of 20,159 reservations have been made thus far since 2012, 12,000 of which were made through March of this year. Out of those figures, around 14,000 belong to customers in the United States, while Europe and the Asia Pacific hold just 25 percent.

That said, it may be a long wait. The assembly line, currently going through upgrades to assemble 3,000 vehicles per week, must be shared with the Model S. The publication says that if the split were 50/50, it would take Tesla over a year to clear the backlog that could hit 25,000 by the time production begins early next year.

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Nevada Legislature Deliberates Tesla Tax Package In Special Session http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/nevada-legislature-deliberates-tesla-tax-package-special-session/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/nevada-legislature-deliberates-tesla-tax-package-special-session/#comments Thu, 11 Sep 2014 10:00:24 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=910626 Last week, Tesla and Nevada governor Brian Sandoval jointly announced the automaker would be bringing its Gigafactory to Reno. Now, it’s up to both houses of the state’s legislature to pull it all together with a $1.3 billion tax break. Reuters reports the Nevada Legislature gathered in Carson City for a special session at noon […]

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Tahoe Reno Industrial Center

Last week, Tesla and Nevada governor Brian Sandoval jointly announced the automaker would be bringing its Gigafactory to Reno. Now, it’s up to both houses of the state’s legislature to pull it all together with a $1.3 billion tax break.

Reuters reports the Nevada Legislature gathered in Carson City for a special session at noon Wednesday to hammer the details of the package, which Sandoval believes will spur $100 billion worth of economic benefits for his state during the next two decades at an investment payoff of 80:1.

The package would provide the following for Tesla in exchange for hosting the Gigafactory:

  • $725 million in tax exemptions through 2034
  • $300 million in various tax savings through 2024
  • $120 million in tax credits for meeting the state’s investment threshold of $3.5 billion
  • $75 million in tax credits for up to 6,000 jobs created
  • Reduced utility rates

In turn, Tesla will invest over $37 million into Nevada’s education systems during the next five years, and will bring a total of 25,500 jobs to the state, from construction to indirect employment.

As of this writing, both houses are set to return for a second day of deliberation Thursday morning. Until then, this is the tax break bill as established during Wednesday’s session.

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Tesla, Toyota May Develop New Project Within Three Years http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-toyota-may-develop-new-project-within-three-years/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-toyota-may-develop-new-project-within-three-years/#comments Tue, 09 Sep 2014 12:00:25 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=909122 Though Toyota and Tesla have, to paraphrase Fleetwood Mac, gone their own way while their RAV4 EV project draws to a close, Tesla CEO Elon Musk says he sees his company working with Toyota in two to three years’ time. Automotive News says Musk made the proclamation during a ceremony for the first Model S […]

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Tesla Toyota RAV4 EV

Though Toyota and Tesla have, to paraphrase Fleetwood Mac, gone their own way while their RAV4 EV project draws to a close, Tesla CEO Elon Musk says he sees his company working with Toyota in two to three years’ time.

Automotive News says Musk made the proclamation during a ceremony for the first Model S sedans delivered in Japan Monday, stating the project “would probably be something significant, maybe on a much higher volume level.” He added that Tesla loved working with Toyota, and held great respect for the automaker.

When the gesture was brought up with Toyota, however, representative Dion Corbett said the automaker had “nothing to say.” This is likely in part due to recent comments between the two companies over their respective paths toward a greener future; Toyota sees EVs as impractical, Tesla believes FCVs are for fools.

The RAV4 EV joint venture is expected to end once the last of the 2,500 crossovers are sold by the end of the year; Toyota has sold 2,130 RAV4 EVs through August 2014.

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Sandoval, Musk Announce Tesla Gigafactory To Be Built In Nevada http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/sandoval-musk-announce-tesla-gigafactory-built-nevada/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/sandoval-musk-announce-tesla-gigafactory-built-nevada/#comments Fri, 05 Sep 2014 14:00:17 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=907097 It’s official: Tesla will build its Gigafactory in Nevada pending legislative approval. KOLO-TV reports the battery factory will bring its 6,500 jobs to Reno, along with $100 billion dollars and up to 22,000 jobs over the next two decades. In turn, Governor Brian Sandoval will ask the state for $1.3 billion in tax breaks and […]

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Elon Musk and Brian Sandoval

It’s official: Tesla will build its Gigafactory in Nevada pending legislative approval.

KOLO-TV reports the battery factory will bring its 6,500 jobs to Reno, along with $100 billion dollars and up to 22,000 jobs over the next two decades.

In turn, Governor Brian Sandoval will ask the state for $1.3 billion in tax breaks and incentives at a special legislative session next Wednesday at the earliest. The package is meant to last for 20 years.

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Tesla Gigafactory May Land In Nevada http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-gigafactory-may-land-nevada/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/09/tesla-gigafactory-may-land-nevada/#comments Thu, 04 Sep 2014 10:00:24 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=906057 After months of wondering as to where Tesla’s massive Gigafactory would end up, an answer could come as soon as 4 p.m. Mountain, when Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and the automaker plan to hold a joint press conference in Carson City. AutoblogGreen reports the location for the 6,500-strong battery factory will likely be Reno, though […]

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Tesla Gigafactory

After months of wondering as to where Tesla’s massive Gigafactory would end up, an answer could come as soon as 4 p.m. Mountain, when Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and the automaker plan to hold a joint press conference in Carson City.

AutoblogGreen reports the location for the 6,500-strong battery factory will likely be Reno, though Tesla hasn’t said much as of this writing. Four other states were in contention to be the Gigafactory’s host: California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.

Local ABC affiliate KOLO-TV — which has live-streaming news, if you wish to tune in later this afternoon — adds that the factory will be placed in the city’s Tahoe Reno Industrial Center, where 3.5 million cubic yards of earth were moved in less than four weeks to establish a pad for a large structure, all under the project name Project Tiger.

Once up and running, the Gigafactory will supply packs for as many as 500,000 vehicles annually by 2020, including the upcoming $35,000 Model 3 due around 2017. Project cost is projected at $5 billion, with the host state expected to chip in $500 million in the form of massive tax breaks.

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Capsule Review: 2013 Tesla Model S P85 Performance http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/08/capsule-review-2013-tesla-model-s-p85-performance/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/08/capsule-review-2013-tesla-model-s-p85-performance/#comments Mon, 25 Aug 2014 14:51:25 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=898442 It’s difficult for any test drive of a Tesla Model S to result in a review that doesn’t become an analysis of the company’s business model, an attempt to justify the cost of the car because of the fuel savings, or a simulated comparison test with a Mercedes-Benz S-Class. But what if the Tesla was […]

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Tesla Model S P85 black It’s difficult for any test drive of a Tesla Model S to result in a review that doesn’t become an analysis of the company’s business model, an attempt to justify the cost of the car because of the fuel savings, or a simulated comparison test with a Mercedes-Benz S-Class.

But what if the Tesla was just a car made by any other conventional automaker? What if we stopped thinking of its electric propulsion system as a sacrifice, or ignored its unique means of generating thrust? And what if we recognized that, because of the company’s desire to operate unconventionally and because it’s plugged in and not fuelled up, no such comparison test can be validated?

My friend, who we’ll call Rob, recently acquired this black Model S P85. He isn’t a wealthy environmentalist; he is a true gearhead. Last time I saw him, he was driving a previous-gen Nissan Pathfinder, having shuffled through various performance cars before discovering married life with children. He wasn’t cross-shopping the Model S with an S-Class or a Porsche Panamera or a Jaguar XJ or really anything at all. He wanted this car, and not just with a little bit of desire.

Thankfully, he also wanted me to drive it.

2013 Tesla Model S Summerside LighthouseBefore even acquiring the all-electric Tesla, Rob had a few advantages not available to residents of, oh, I don’t know, Rawlins, Wyoming. Rob lives in Canada’s smallest province, Prince Edward Island, a bona fide shrinking sandbar in the Northumberland Strait. Rob could drive his Model S tip to tip, North Cape to East Point, and still have enough range to get back to his home in the western part of the island outside the small city of Summerside. And yes, Summerside is absolutely littered with electric car chargers. There are eight within a three-mile drive of Rob’s business, in part because of the government’s attempts to show what all of their wind turbines can do. None of the chargers are in use as I write this.

So Rob’s range, especially if he decides not to cross the Confederation Bridge to the mainland, is as much (if not more) limited by the size of his island as it is the capacity of his Tesla’s battery.

Not that the top of the line Model S is particularly range-limited, but once range anxiety is removed from the equation, a Tesla owner is simply left with the benefits of low energy costs and always available torque. After a brief tutorial from Rob – the car is on because you got in it, align your personal settings at the top of the screen where it says Rob, open the glass roof by virtually sliding it open here, check Tesla’s share price via the free-for-life web browser – he encouraged me to suspend the speech of my passengers with firm prods of the accelerator, such is the capability of all that right now torque.

2013 Tesla Model S Freetown PEIRob headed back into work; I left Summerside for greener pastures and emptier roads. Veering away from an awkwardly-designed roundabout between Summerside and Kensington with the right pedal set to loud and the Model S not really leaning at all through a fast, getting faster, really fast, almost too fast right-hand sweeper, my mother-in-law was in fact silenced. My father-in-law, who’s ongoing root canal left him half-high on Tylenol 3, may have clenched his teeth tight enough to need an extra visit to the dentist. These folks are used to passenger rides in fast cars, and I’m accustomed to driving them.

But electric torque is different.

The twin-turbocharged Cadillac CTS V Sport reviewed here recently weighs less than the Tesla and produces similar power. Yet no matter what we say about the removal of turbo lag in modern cars, and indeed no matter how we laud the best naturally-aspirated V8s for their instantaneous throttle response, they just don’t feel like this. They may also not lose three miles of range over the span of a 650-yard acceleration run.

Up to cruising altitude, Tesla has effectively hushed the aggressive 21-inch 245/35ZR Michelin Pilot Sports. Wind noise, particularly around the driver’s side A-pillar, is another matter. It’s likely that a conventional car may overwhelm that swshh with a vibrating V8; the Tesla has no such powerplant to drown out the sound of the wind. Nevertheless, the future of silent propulsion will necessitate an even greater focus on noise and harshness, if not vibration, of which there is none.

2013 Tesla Model S P85 InteriorThe P85’s straight-line performance (416 horsepower, 443 lb-ft of torque, quarter mile in the low 12s) doesn’t stop impressing, especially on an island full of two-lane roads with tourists who need overtaking, but in daily driving I have to believe that the car’s balance and rough-road composure will provide greater satisfaction. 48/52 weight distribution, particularly when that weight is settled way down low with a centre of gravity of just 17.5 inches, makes for the kind of tossable handling you’d never expect to find in a car that weighs around 4700 pounds. Ride quality is certainly no worse than what you’d expect in a five-passenger car that costs this much, perhaps better given its roadholding skills.

The Tesla’s accurate and realistic steering is best left in the Standard setting, as Sport’s hefty weight is better left reserved for twisty-road hustling and Comfort is unnecessarily light, though not unusable. If there is one dynamic complaint, it’s a small one concerning the car’s knack for remaining on an even keel, as there’s not much to signal that the Tesla’s high limits are approaching. A small measure of body roll would be enough for the chassis to effectively communicate its current status.

There are certainly no complaints with the brakes, which I hardly ever used. Somewhat more normal braking with less regen is available by way of a simple settings change, but leaving the brakes in Tesla’s standard mode, and thus backing off the throttle, is distinctly more pleasant in town. It also provides a more performance-like sensation when the car’s being driven with gusto.

2013 Tesla Model S Cargo areasInside, the Tesla Model S is vast. Rob’s car didn’t have the optional third row, so the cargo area (26.3 cubic feet) appeared all the more expansive. Don’t forget, there’s another 5.3 cubic feet of space under the front hood, space which Rob uses as a change table for his toddler. Rear seat leg room is plentiful, but the floor does feel much too high back there. Up front, I found the driver’s seat needs more side bolstering, but the seat is hugely adjustable and sufficiently lengthy for those of us who are long of thigh. The large minivan-like area between the front seats is more than a little useful but some extra dividing options wouldn’t go amiss. I was no fan of the Model S’s spindly cruise control lever, and the seatbelt buckles are far from premium in a car which emphasizes high end materials, as exemplified by the Alcantara headliner.

The interior, however, centres around the vertically-mounted 17-inch screen. I found myself grateful for the simplicity of the controls. After all, I wasn’t going to have a week with Rob’s Tesla as I typically do with manufacturer-supplied press cars. The ease with which I shuffled between menus, read TTAC readers’ disagreeing comments on last Friday’s Impala story, and operated the always-visible climate controls speaks to the lack of complexity in the system. Yet I was more fond of the speed with which the screen operated. All too often, current vehicle-installed infotainment systems possess none of a modern computer’s speed. The Tesla’s device never required a wait. The big screen’s one letdown? Rob told me a system reset would be required if we left the browser for an extended period on any page other than Tesla’s own website, as other websites tend to cause the screen to freeze.

2013 Tesla Model S P85 Fishing boatSpeaking of freezing, Tesla’s fortunately going to take care of Rob’s leaking cargo area before winter temperatures set in by flying in a technician to solve the problem. This is symptomatic of Rob’s overall service experience. I asked him whether he put up with the car’s (admittedly few) faults just because he loves the car so much, noting that a flooded trunk in a new Honda Civic would have consumers up in arms. “No,” he said, “it’s the service experience.” If problems are resolved this efficiently, the problems which should seem substantial become trivial, even forgotten.

Priced from $95,000 and fully-optioned at $130,000, the Tesla Model S P85 is not the electric car for the masses. Tesla’s upcoming crossover won’t be either. Yet if Tesla can continue to prioritize performance and market the best-looking cars, they’ll be special devices at any price point and in any category.

To a certain extent, the Model S transcends “car” to function in a broader consumer marketplace as the next best thing. After an extended test drive in Rob’s Model S, I’d argue that the Model S transcends “car” because it’s better than other cars, regardless of its place in popular culture alongside advancements like the iPhone, Google Streetview, and gourmet burgers.

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Consumer Reports’ Long-Term Tesla Develops Reliability Blemishes http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/08/consumer-reports-long-term-tesla-develops-reliability-blemishes/ http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2014/08/consumer-reports-long-term-tesla-develops-reliability-blemishes/#comments Wed, 13 Aug 2014 10:00:08 +0000 http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/?p=889626 Though the Tesla Model S is one of Consumer Reports’ recommended darlings, the premium EV garnered its share of reliability blemishes during long-term testing. Consumer Reports’ Gabe Shenhar says that over the 15,743 miles he and his colleagues have spent driving the Model S, a number of problems have popped up, including: Automatic retracting door […]

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Tesla Model S

Though the Tesla Model S is one of Consumer Reports’ recommended darlings, the premium EV garnered its share of reliability blemishes during long-term testing.

Consumer Reports’ Gabe Shenhar says that over the 15,743 miles he and his colleagues have spent driving the Model S, a number of problems have popped up, including:

  • Automatic retracting door handles “relucant to emerge from the coachwork”
  • A broken seat buckle in the third row seating section
  • Front trunk lid failing to release via touchscreen
  • Said screen going blank, blocking all access to the car’s functions

Shenhar noted every one of these problems were quickly remedied by the service center in Milford, Conn. or over-the-air from the mothership in California.

He concludes that the sedan’s reliability ranking may fall a bit when the publication’s related survey is examined in September, but only if other Model S owners have had similar problems occur with enough severity and frequency to merit a downgrade.

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