By on November 14, 2012

The Nikkei [sub] claims that Toyota has done the groundwork for a new battery that could “potentially more than double the driving range of electric vehicles,” possibly up to 1,000 km (620 miles). And it’s even cheaper.

Toyota’s new battery uses a sodium-based chemical compound as the positive electrode in a sodium ion battery. The battery produces a voltage that is 30 percent higher than that of lithium-ion batteries. Once commercialized, prices of the battery will likely be lower than those of conventional lithium-ion batteries, says the report.

Further testing is needed before the new technology is ready for prime time. “We may be able to extend EV mileage considerably,” the Nikkei cites a Toyota official. “We may also be able to achieve a driving range of between 500km and 1,000km.”

Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, Wikipedia says. Half of the world’s salt consists of sodium. Toyota thinks that the new sodium battery could be commercially available by 2020, if all goes well.

Just a few months ago, Toyota’s vice chairman and R&D chief Takeshi Uchiyamada was outspokenly skeptic about the viability of EVs:

“The current capabilities of electric vehicles do not meet society’s needs, whether it may be the distance the cars can run, or the costs, or how it takes a long time to charge.”

If the new battery lives up to its promise, two out of three would not be bad.

It is midnight in Tokyo. We’ll try tomorrow to get more.

Get the latest TTAC e-Newsletter!

62 Comments on “Toyota Invents 600 Mile Battery For Less – ETA 2020...”


  • avatar
    NormSV650

    Can Toyota put into a car that cannot be recalled as they just recalled all 2004-2009 Prius models?

    • 0 avatar
      imag

      Oh, give me a break. I keep seeing this comment, but for some reason it only comes up in Toyota articles.

      Every company and vehicle has recalls. Look at just the list of recalls reported by Autoblog:

      http://autoblog.search.aol.com/search?q=recall&s_it=header_form

      Knee-jerk reactions to a single recall posting are a really bad way to evaluate vehicle reliability, and you probably know it.

  • avatar
    Pig_Iron

    Hey! My dad made that meter. They were tough enough to meet MIL-STD-810. That was after he was Timken, but before we went to GM. Both those plants are gone now, but Bach-Simpson is still hanging in there as part Wabtec. They make black-boxes now, of all things.

    :-)

    Good luck Toyota – there’s a lot skeptics out there.

    • 0 avatar
      schmitt trigger

      Ahhhh…. the Simpson 260 multimeter…..I learned my basic electrical training using one of those….35 years ago! And they already had been in use for a long time back then.

  • avatar
    Rday

    I guess I am just a true believer. My 04 Prius was the best care i have ever owned. My Sienna van is the best van I have ever owned. So Toyota is the only car company i trust to do what they say. So if they have this new battery source I would be very inclined to believe them. This is a ground changing find and will revolutionize the auto industry. We are all lucky to have such a well managed and creative car company.

    • 0 avatar
      28-Cars-Later

      Its nice to hear you had such positive experiences with their products, but cheerleading tryouts were last week. If they can standardize the sodium battery technology and bring it to market in a reasonable timeframe my sincere props to them, but just announcing ‘we may have something here’ isn’t causing me to jump for joy, its just a nice factoid.

      • 0 avatar
        APaGttH

        Yup. 2012 is eight years away. Getting some chemicals to react in a lab is one thing. Moving it to commercial application, prototype, scale to manufacturing and pass the rigor of real world vehicle operations is a whole different ball game.

        The first thing that jumps out to me, stand alone sodium is even more reactive than Lithium. That means more heat and a far more urgent need to be 100% sure that the case holding the battery never fractures. All the alkali metals are looking for that extra electron, and the heavier in atomic weight you go through the Periodic Table of Elements, the more reactive the alkali metals become. Sodium comes after Lithium. It’s more reactive, less stable than Lithium.

        Not saying it can’t be done – but there are some big barriers to cross.

    • 0 avatar
      rnc

      My 01’* camry was such a piece of crap (paid in full, in 04′ traded to my brother for $500 in free repairs, this is after the speed sensor was replaced three times, one of the main drive bearing disentigrating before 50k miles, toyota said I didn’t properly maintain, despite having all maint. records (related to oil sludge issue), he fixed that, then the speed sensor failed for the third time and I went to a 98′ jeep, lasted to 215k, when I got it was alittle below 100k (amazing what one bad ownership experience can do, won’t ever get one thier vehicles again)

      My co=workers previous gen camry, think it was last of that run 00′ maybe was so superior in everyway, toyota took out the cookie cutter and I bought a car based on reputation at the wrong time.

      Saw a Legend this weekend, looked like it had just been taken out of the box and I was reminded that once upon a time honda/acura build vehicles that people desired and would pay a premium for, those days are gone (like toyotas maybe battery in 10 years, honda has thier super vapor hybrid coming)

      • 0 avatar
        28-Cars-Later

        I could go for a clean Legend, don’t see them anymore here in rust country. The last time I saw one of any sort was a blue ’88 some kid brought up from some relation in N.C. Rare birds in these parts.

  • avatar
    Astigmatism

    If they can combine it with the UNIST carbonizing method ( http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/134635-scientists-develop-lithium-ion-battery-that-charges-120-times-faster-than-normal ), maybe they can get three out of three. Well, three out of five: still need a way to generate all of that electricity without destroying the planet and distribute it to charging stations without losing 90% during transmission.

    • 0 avatar
      bunkie

      Let’s put aside the advantages of gasoline for a moment (high energy density, liquid at all temperatures, etc.) and look at what electricity represents: it can be generated from many sources. Like hydrogen, we need to view electricty as a carrier of energy, not a source. That gives it an advantage over gasoline which is a one-time-use fuel.

      And, yes, it’s true that coal supplies much of our electricty. But that is offset by the massive waste inherent in our electricity distribution grid. It oscillates between too-high demand and too-little demand. Since the grid takes hours to respond to demand, it wastes a lot of power. That’s that could go toward charging cars.

      Where did you get that 90% figure? I suspect it includes the grid losses (power shunted to condensors during low-deman times) that I’ve already described. Actual transmission losses are much, much lower than 90%. And I think it’s a worst-case number.

      • 0 avatar
        wmba

        “And, yes, it’s true that coal supplies much of our electricty. But that is offset by the massive waste inherent in our electricity distribution grid. It oscillates between too-high demand and too-little demand. Since the grid takes hours to respond to demand, it wastes a lot of power. That’s that could go toward charging cars.
        Where did you get that 90% figure? I suspect it includes the grid losses (power shunted to condensors during low-deman times) that I’ve already described. Actual transmission losses are much, much lower than 90%. And I think it’s a worst-case number”

        Rubbish. Almost completely incorrect. “Condensors” (sic) cannot store AC power other than during each 60 Hz cycle. Condensers, usually called capacitors, can store energy in a DC circuit. Electrical energy generation relies on base load plus quick acting either up or down sources like gas turbines or hydro. And every kind of generation in between. If it took hours to change the system output, we’d have been in trouble a hundred years ago.

        Where does this advanced knowledge of old wives tales come from? No wonder we’re in an economic mess with ideas like this floating around.

      • 0 avatar
        danio3834

        “Actual transmission losses are much, much lower than 90%. And I think it’s a worst-case number.”

        Depends how far you are from the source!

      • 0 avatar
        lostjr

        Coal: depends on what part of the country you are in. IIRC west coast is mostly _not_ coal.

      • 0 avatar
        golden2husky

        …..Since the grid takes hours to respond to demand, it wastes a lot of power….

        Who told you that? I’d like a link please. BTW, the vast majority of the loss in the fuel to power at your home, is lost in the inherent inefficiency of generation. Far less is lost in transmission.

    • 0 avatar
      wmba

      “…without losing 90% during transmission.”

      Well, luckily for mankind, we adopted the Westinghouse/Tesla AC electricity system about 1900, so losses run at less than 10%. Including the distribution network, not just transmission. If you don’t understand the terms transmission and distribution relating to an electricity network, look it up.

      It’s statements like this 90% loss that make me realize that the internet is alive and well, and that people still buy Ronco knives from TV infomercials for some unfathomable reason, perhaps to carve granite.

      • 0 avatar
        Astigmatism

        90% was hyperbole. But the overall efficiency of the generation and distribution system is about 30%, and has been for decades. The larger point still stands: better batteries are a necessary but not sufficient part of the solution.

      • 0 avatar
        wmba

        Got you down to 30%, have we?

        Still hyperbole. Our province wide electrical system loses about 9.9%. How do we measure that? We measure the kWh we generate at the plants, and then see what we measure for aggregate usage that gets billed at the customers’ meters. The difference is the loss. Tricky, huh?

        I spent over 20 years in the electric utility metering business. Even had to go on the radio to refute some idiot claiming putting a cardboard box over a meter and keeping it in the dark reduced its registration of energy. Heard ‘em all, I tell you.

        The more complicated a technology is, the more the tea-leaf readers blink in the early-morning light and issue the latest old wives’ tales. Because they haven’t a clue what’s going on, ideas get dreamed up that have no basis in reality.

        As bad as the ridiculous EPA equivalent mileage numbers, which ignore any reality I’m aware of unless your electrical system is solely powered by hydro, wind power, solar cells and the inevitable unicorn fart.

      • 0 avatar
        bunkie

        wmba,

        THe type of condensor I was speaking of is not a capacitor. It’s not an energy storage devices, it’s an energy sink used to absorb and dissipate excess capacity. At least that’s what I was told back when I was working for an energy-management startup a few years back.

        I’m a former electronics tech and had I been talking about a capacitor to store DC charge, I would have used that term.

      • 0 avatar
        redmondjp

        bunkie,

        condenser = capacitor

        Capacitors are used on AC power systems to balance out the inductance found in large transformers and motors, in order to keep the voltage and current waveforms in sync (perfectly so = a power factor of 1.0) A lower power factor than 1 means that there is either excessive inductance (typically) or capacitance (rare) and this leads to wasted energy dissipated in the power system.

  • avatar
    Conslaw

    I don’t know how different Toyota’s technology is, but in the 1990’s Ford experimented with a concept car program called Ecostar based on Sodium-Sulfur batteries. The batteries generate a lot of power, but they operate at 600 degrees F. My first impression is that there’s a place for this technology, but probably not in a consumer vehicle. Perhaps an industrial application like the Bloom Box might be a better place to work the bugs out.

    • 0 avatar
      Mr. K

      “Conslaw
      November 14th, 2012 at 10:29 am

      I don’t know how different Toyota’s technology is, but in the 1990′s Ford experimented with a concept car program called Ecostar based on Sodium-Sulfur batteries. The batteries generate a lot of power, but they operate at 600 degrees F. My first impression is that there’s a place for this technology, but probably not in a consumer vehicle. Perhaps an industrial application like the Bloom Box might be a better place to work the bugs out.”

      For sure there will be bugs! OTOH what temperature does the exhaust manifold reach? The cat?

      Just as these dangerously hot components of a modern gasoline engine pose little risk(to users, not techs :)) so will new battery technologies if they, as you say Conslaw, reach 600 degrees or even ‘just’ 250 degrees.

      I don’t know, but how hot do Chevy Volt batteries get – you will recall there is a battery cooling system on those vehicles…

    • 0 avatar
      imag

      These are not likely to be sodium sulfur batteries. I am 99% certain it is an entirely different chemistry.

      And people are trying these Sodium batteries out now in stationary applications. NGK and GE’s Durathon are both being deployed now in multiple stationary applications.

      • 0 avatar
        mcs

        “I am 99% certain it is an entirely different chemistry.”

        It could be Magnesium Sulpher: http://goo.gl/Z9cjd

        but I think this is their Solid State Lithium Superionic battery: http://goo.gl/0uP7N

    • 0 avatar
      golden2husky

      Correct me if I am wrong, but isn’t the Bloom Box just a natural gas powered fuel cell? One will be finding its way into Lower Manhattan within the next near…

  • avatar
    el scotto

    500KM = 310.69 Miles, 1000KM = 621.37 Miles I wonder if there’s an app for that ;)

  • avatar
    bumpy ii

    Sodium is good, but you do have to keep it melted for it to work. So, you need the grid charger to keep it hot, and/or some of the potential range goes into heating the battery. And IIRC if the battery solidifies, you have to throw it out. Also IIRC SAFT or somebody had a molten sodium battery in a smart car a few years ago.

  • avatar
    dima

    It makes me wonder if Toyota uses some kind of polymer to keep melting point much lower?

  • avatar
    gslippy

    2020 may as well be the next century; who knows what the market or technology will look like then.

    • 0 avatar
      icemilkcoffee

      2020 is a merely 8 years from now.

      • 0 avatar
        gslippy

        The ‘maybe’ promise of doubled range in 8 years may not be enough.

        The health of the EV market is tenuous at best, subject to many variables – range, charging time and availability, costs, subsidies, ‘fire’ stories, and politics.

        A change in any of these variables could hurt the market significantly, such as the disappearance of subsidies with a new political regime. Or, the realization that EVs don’t pay gasoline taxes could induce taxation elsewhere, which will limit their use further.

  • avatar
    TheEndlessEnigma

    You’re still limiting the acceptance of electric cars until you can dramatically knock down the recharge time. I would say that if you can’t get a recharge time down to 1/2 hour max (for full system charge) you’re limiting yourself to commuter car applications only.

    • 0 avatar
      icemilkcoffee

      Don’t you have to sleep overnight after driving 600 miles? What’s wrong with letting the car charge while you’re sleeping?

      • 0 avatar
        APaGttH

        You’ve never gone on a cross-country death drive, have you?

      • 0 avatar
        TheEndlessEnigma

        Average 60mph interstate driving (with food and …ahem…wee-wee stops)…that’s 10 hours. Place someone else in the car that you can trade off with…..umm….600 miles is easy. That 600 mile range, I would assume, is best case scenario. Add cold weather and hills to climb up (think Rockies/Blue Ridge/etc) and you have a range that once again isn’t practical if you don’t have a rather quick recharge time. I’m not prepared, as a consumer, it add a day or two to a trip so that I can wait for my car to recharge because it ran out of electricity.

      • 0 avatar
        Luke42

        @APaGttH: “You’ve never gone on a cross-country death drive, have you?”

        If that’s your primary use-case for a car, then gasoline is right for you. But most people don’t do those kind of drives very often.

        Turns out that I use my car mostly for running errands around town and driving to work. Since a EV drivers typically charge at home and start every morning with a full battery, the range of the LEAF is already sufficient for my daily-driving. I’m a dad, and an EV with a 700 mile range would cover the most I could possibly ever drive in a day on a family roadtrip.

        The future that I see is that EVs become the default for commuter cars, and do-everything continue to be gasoline powered. It’s not exactly an EV-enthusiast’s utopia, BUT cutting our transportation oil use by half by saving commuters money would do amazing things for both the environment and for American foreign policy — and everyone who insists on driving a 4×4 ‘Burban to work (and draining their own wallet would in the process) would continue to be free to do so.

        But, seriously, if every commuter CamCord and some minivans were EVs and everything else remained “traditional”, how would that effect their owners? (My WAG is that it would 90% of them money, and 10% would buy something else). How would it affect traditional car enthusiasts? (My WAG is that they’d see lower gas prices, but they’d be otherwise unaffected.) How would that affect people whose needs aren’t served by EVs? (Same as car enthusiasts; lower gas prices, otherwise unaffected.) This seems like a win for everyone.

  • avatar
    BrianL

    So, in 7 or 8 years we might have something from this. I am pretty sure people have posted about sodium before, and the problems have been getting it into a liquid form. Honestly, I would like to see it soon. But, I would also like to know what kind of charging device would be needed for this as well as how many kWh does this hold. How long does it take to charge.

    1000 or 500 km would be great. But taking 36 hours to charge would make it a non starter. Hopefully the charger won’t require huge rework on the electricity in most homes.

  • avatar
    lostjr

    Is that a potato? ;-)

  • avatar
    redmondjp

    With any type of news releases such as this one, it’s always important to read the fine print (pasted below).

    DISCLAIMER: This news release contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. If such risks or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions prove incorrect, the results of this organization and its consolidated subsidiaries could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements and assumptions. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements, including but not limited to statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations; any statements concerning expected development, performance or market share relating to products and services; anticipated operational and financial results; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing.

  • avatar
    redav

    The figures in the press release don’t mean much:
    “more than double the driving range of electric vehicles” = just about any battery can do that by adding more–the question is at what cost, weight, efficiency, etc., penalty.

    “And it’s even cheaper” = there are several ways to measure cost, but I assume they mean the batteries cost less per kWh storage. However, using sodium instead of lithium likely will lead to weight penalties which may make real-world applications not as cost advantageous. That’s why lead-acid batteries aren’t used for EVs, despite being cheaper.

    “The battery produces a voltage that is 30 percent higher” = I may not be a battery designer, but even I can make a battery have different voltages. I assume they mean the differences in electronegativities of the reactants is 30% larger. But since what drives this application is energy density, recharge characteristics, longevity, and safety, what does a higher voltage even mean?

    And just to be anal: “Half of the world’s salt consists of sodium.” = not if you measure it by weight, which happens to be how abundance in the crust is usually measured.

    All snarkiness & cynicism aside, I do hope it pans out and we can see some real-world improvements in cost reduction. Despite what everyone says about range anxiety & recharge times, I really believe that it’s cost that prevents EV acceptance.

  • avatar
    icemilkcoffee

    And what happens when sodium meets water? Fireworks! It will make the flooded Fiskars’ fire look like a backyard barbeque.

  • avatar
    Robstar

    I’m curious to see the range @80mph after 10 years in chicago freeze/thaw cycles in an unheated/uncooled garage.

    If it’s still over 200 miles and/or replacement batteries are fairly cheap, then i’d be interested.

  • avatar
    TW4

    Who cares?

    The future of electric vehicles is not giant, heavy batteries that travel 1,000 miles between charges.

    Electric vehicles would already dominate the personal transportation industry if we had batteries with 50 mile range, rapid recharge (5 minutes), and could handle several thousand recharge cycles.

    Increasing range and increasing power density are not terribly important. We could create gasoline cars with 3,000 mile range, but hauling 100 gallons of fuel doesn’t make a great deal of sense. Modest range, modest density, and rapid recharge capability are what matter.

    • 0 avatar
      cmoibenlepro

      I care. Sometimes I leave the city, you know, like for vacations or whatever else. I don’t want to stop every 45 minutes for recharging. Especially since range is much lower in winter. 50 miles is useless.

      So range, density, quick charging, and fire/explosions are the biggest issues.

      • 0 avatar
        TW4

        I can lead a horse to water, but I can’t make it drink. Your demands are only going to make you poor and slow the adoption of electric vehicles which slows the development of batteries.

      • 0 avatar
        Luke42

        cmoibenlepro: “I care. Sometimes I leave the city, you know, like for vacations or whatever else.”

        The most likely scenario for pure EVs that I can see now is a multi-ca household. For instance, a household with a Honda Odyssey kid-hauler and a next-generation Nissan LEAF commuter-car would cut fuel consumption dramatically while still being able to drive across the country at a moment’s notice. The only reason my driveway doesn’t look like this now is that these cars are both expensive on the used market.

        If you’re single, though, then you’d probably be better off with a single do-everything vehicle.

    • 0 avatar
      redav

      I disagree. Cost is the key factor in acceptance, not range or recharge times. You can get just about any range you want by adding more batteries (at more cost). It takes a long time to recharge cell phones (as opposed to swapping out a camera’s batteries), but people are used to it and have adapted their behavior accordingly. The same will happen with cars.

  • avatar
    Oelmotor

    I`m curious…Did Panasonic or a research institute work with Toyota to develop a sodium battery?

  • avatar
    LuciferV8

    Ok, so I managed to snag a snippet of a technical paper:
    http://ma.ecsdl.org/content/MA2012-02/15/1847.full.pdf

    It looks like this was developed in house by Toyota.

    If viable battery technology ever gets developed, it’s not going to be developed in the US and/or Western Europe.

    The power elite in the Western world are always on the ready to put the kibosh on that development, so the only way to get that technology out is as part of an organization strong enough to circumvent the standard ways of repressing it – in this case, Toyota Motor/Japanese gov’t.

    If this works out, the folks at Goldman Sachs will be ticked. Then they will lick their wounds, drop the carbon credit BS and move on to the next scam.

    • 0 avatar
      Luke42

      The conspiracy theory isn’t necessary to explain the differences you point out. Making good EV batteries is hard, and gas is cheap in the USA. Japan is an island with no local petroleum resources, so they’re a couple of decades ahead of the rest of us in terms of the oil crunch, which is why they started developing the Honda Insight and the Toyota Prius *20 years* ago, and started selling these cars around *15 years ago*.

      The reasoning probably went something like this: “this is a real problem we face, and the rest of the world will probably see it a while after we refine the technology.

      Yes, there are powerful opponents to EV technology, but their opposition is not necessary to explain the behavior we’re seeing.

      P.S. The projections about the US becoming the biggest energy producer include an Easter egg: natural gas production (really useful energy, but not the same as oil). I’m also curious to see if the projection includes a falloff in the production in places like Saudi Arabia.

  • avatar
    G35X

    “I don’t know how different Toyota’s technology is, but in the 1990′s Ford experimented with a concept car program called Ecostar based on Sodium-Sulfur batteries. The batteries generate a lot of power, but they operate at 600 degrees F.” – Conslaw

    That Ford battery, called NS(natrium-sulphur) battery, is alive and well. NGK Insulators, LTD, a sister company to NGK Sparkplugs Company, is a licensee to the Ford technology and is making NS batteries for industrial use. It is used to level demand fluctuations of the power grid, to store low-cost off-peak electricity for use during daytime and as a buffer for wind and solar generators. Just about when the business started taking off last year a fire occurred at an installation site, which was caused by a faulty unit cell. NGK re-started delivery and replacement of the battery June this year after implementing additional safety measures. The battery system is big and heavy (casing is packed with sand) and is not for automotive use but is expected to play an important role for peak shaving and local buffering.

    The sodium-ion battery, by the way, is not Toyota exclusive. Sumitomo Electric Industries made announcement March last year that they had succeeded in building working prototype of sodium-ion battery using low-temperature (about 140 degrees F), low-cost molten salt compound (non-flammable). The battery is expected to be used for household UPS and peak shaver.

  • avatar
    russty1

    Seems too premature for the press release above, more like the marketing dep’t needing to create a little buzz. Car co’s are always inventing cool stuff like self-healing paint and self-cleaning velour etc. I’d like to see a column at TTAC that occasionally provides updates on the latest drivetrain technologies – e.g. who are they key players around the world and what is their progress with battery technology. There must be many places working day & night on this, as well as with hydrogen systems, fuel cells, used french-fry-oil burners, algae fuels, organic hamster wheels, wind-up motors etc. Actually I like the little urban compressed air cars featured on a TTAC video a while back. What happened with them?
    With so many folks competitively working on this issue worldwide, surely we’re just around the corner from a breakthrough. The romantic in me likes to think someone tinkering in their garage will discover something amazing, unless he or she blows themselves up in the process or gets their invention’s patent bought out and mothballed by some multinational car company. I guess I still want to believe we’re getting somewhere with this stuff!

  • avatar
    rnc

    A group at MIT or Cal invented a liquid electrolite or something that could hold a charge, not nearly as much as a tesla battery back, but would solve alot of problems, pull into station, pump sucks out used, pumps in new, haven’t ever heard about it again (of course it was also 5-10 years before practicallity could be achieved)

  • avatar
    Whuffo2

    Sodium ion batteries are nothing new; they were first blazed across the media in the 1960’s and while they’re efficient and have high capacity, the big problem remains.

    Sodium is a metal, and to function in these batteries it must be molten. That takes place at much higher than ambient temperature, even for the more current “low temperature” sodium batteries; they trade capacity for the ability to operate at lower temperatures. When you subtract the energy required to keep the batteries at operating temperature, their net capacity isn’t any better than a NiMH cell. Look at the picture; see how that thing is glowing red hot? Imagine a whole box of red-hot molten sodium in your car. Talk about an environmental hazard…

  • avatar
    shaker

    It’s 1800, and Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) is showing a bemused group his new “Pile” battery — “But what is it *useful* for?” chuckled a whale-oil lamp salesman…

  • avatar
    stuki

    If you can’t make it run on water, try saltwater…..


Back to TopLeave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.

Subscribe without commenting

Recent Comments

New Car Research

Get a Free Dealer Quote

Staff

  • Contributing Writers

  • Jack Baruth, United States
  • Brendan McAleer, Canada
  • Marcelo De Vasconcellos, Brazil
  • Vojta Dobes, Czech Republic
  • Matthias Gasnier, Australia
  • W. Christian 'Mental' Ward, Abu Dhabi
  • Mark Stevenson, Canada
  • Cameron Aubernon, United States
  • J Emerson, United States